interactions, inappropriate drug selection, or inappropriate drug dosage occurred before recommending surgery (Arcangelo, et al., 2017). How Patient Factor: (age) May Impact the Effects of Prescribed AEDs The patient’s age, extending from pediatrics through geriatrics can impact the effects of AEDs. Changes in the brain physiology and function at different ages, changes in underlying causes of epilepsy, changes in type and frequency of adverse reactions, and changes in pharmacokinetics may affect the prescribed drug’s ability to control seizures. Another consideration is females of child-bearing age who may become pregnant (or lactating women) while on certain AEDs which pose significant threats (teratogenic) to the fetus causing fetal malformations. Infants and children generally are more susceptible to having adverse reactions than adults. Children can experience such effects as hepatic failure, rashes, cosmetic, and heat strokes, but are more likely to have seizure remission than other age groups. Adolescents may
gain weight depending on the prescribed AED, and may develop stigmas toward taking AED, feeling that taking such drugs sets them apart from their peers. The elderly may have problems with metabolism and absorption related to the aging process (French & Staley, 2012). Measures Used to Reduce Side Effects Measures that may potentially used begin with extensive patient education. Education facilitates compliance which facilitates seizure control. Distribute drug information, patient- oriented information sources, information of nutrition and/or lifestyle changes, and complementary and/or alternative medicine therapies. Encourage patients to get enough rest; wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace; take their medications correctly; and to engage in frequent exercise. Other measures such as involving significant others, family, friends in their care; and joining a support group for epileptics (Arcangelo, et al., 2017; Mayo Clinic, 2018). References Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.) . Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Epilepsy Foundation. (2014). What is epilepsy? . Retrieved from . French, J. A., & Staley, B. A. (2012). AED treatment through different ages: As our brains change, should our drug choices also? Epilepsy Currents, 12(Suppl 3) , 22–27. . Retrieved from . Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6 th ed) . St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Laureate Education Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Pharmacology for the nervous system . Baltimore, MD: Author. Mayo Clinic. (2018, June 13). Epilepsy . Retrieved from - conditions/epilepsy/symptoms-causes/syc-20350093 and from .
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