Weight of stationary phase plus solid support 40 Generally the film thickness

Weight of stationary phase plus solid support 40

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Weight of stationary phase plus solid support
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40 Generally, the film thickness primarily affects the retention character and the sample capacity of a column. Thick films are used with highly volatile analytes, because such films retain solutes for a longer time and thus provide a greater time for separation to take place. Thin films are useful for separating species of low volatility in a reasonable time. On the other hand, a thicker film can tolerate a larger sample size. Film thicknesses in the range from 0.1 – 5 m are common.
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41 Liquid Stationary Phases In general, the polarity of the stationary phase should match that of the sample constituents ("like" dissolves "like"). Most stationary phases are based on polydimethylsiloxane or polyethylene glycol (PEG) backbones:
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42
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43 The polarity of the stationary phase can be changed by derivatization with different functional groups such as a phenyl group. Bleeding of the column is cured by bonding the stationary phase to the column; or crosslinking the stationary phase. Liquid Stationary Phases should have the following characteristics: • Low volatility • High decomposition temperature (thermally stable) • Chemically inert (reversible interactions with solvent) • Chemically attached to support (to prevent bleeding) • Appropriate k' and a for good resolution
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44 Bonded and Crosslinked Stationary Phases The purpose of bonding and cross-linking is to prevent bleeding and provide a stable stationary phase. With use at high temperatures, stationary phases that are not chemically bonded or crosslinked slowly lose their stationary phase due to bleeding in which a small amount of the physically immobilized liquid is carried out of the column during the elution process. Crosslinking is carried out in situ after a column is coated with one of the polymers
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45 Column Configurations and Ovens The column in chromatography is undoubtedly the heart of the technique. A column can either be a packed or open tubular. Traditionally, packed columns were most common but fast developments in open tubular techniques and reported advantages in terms of efficiency and speed may make open tubular columns the best choice in the near future. Packed columns are relatively short (~2meters) while open tubular columns may be as long as 30-100 meters
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46 Packed columns are made of stainless steel or glass while open tubular columns are usually made of fused silica. The temperature of the column is adjusted so that it is close to the average boiling point of the sample mixture. However, temperature programming is used very often to achieve better separations. The temperature of the column is assumed to be the same as the oven which houses the column. The oven temperature should be stable and easily changed in order to obtain reproducible results.
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47 Detection Systems Several detectors are available for use in GC. Each detector has its own characteristics and features as well as drawbacks.
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