clear what pathological significance if any could be attributed to the

Clear what pathological significance if any could be

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clear what pathological significance, if any, could be attributed to the lactobacilli, because pure cultures were incapable of reproducing infection. Nevertheless, lacto- bacilli were again implicated in an infection of female 2-3-year-old rainbow trout from a hatchery in Newfoundland, Canada (Cone, 1982). However, this was a mixed bacterial infection involving primarily lactobacilli but also Aer. hydrophila, Ps.fluor- escens and Enterobacteriaceae representatives. There is no report about any patho- genicity experiments using the Canadian Lactobacillus strain; therefore, its precise
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50 Bacterial Fish Pathogens Table 3.1. Comparison of Eubacterium limosum with Eu. tarantellae Character Catalase production Growth at 37°C Degradation of: AescuHn Blood DNA Gelatin Lecithin Starch Production of acid from: Adonitol AescuHn Amygdalin Arabinose Cellobiose Dulcitol Fructose Glucose Lactose Maltose Mannitol Mannose Melezitose Raffinose Rhamnose SaHcin Starch Sucrose Trehalose Xylose Eu. limosum^ - + + NS NS V NS - + - - - + + + - - Eu. tarantellae^ - + - + + + - NS - - NS + + + - - ^ From Moore and Holdeman-Moore (1986) b From Udey et al. (1977) NS = Not stated V = Variable result role as a fish pathogen is open to question. From these two initial reports, it is doubtful whether Lactobacillus should be regarded as a true fish pathogen. However, additional lactic-acid producing organisms have been isolated from the kidneys of moribund rainbow trout (B. Austin, unpublished data). Moreover, these isolates produced chnical disease upon intraperitoneal injection into salmonids. Similar iso- lates have been studied by Professor Stemke (pers. commun.; Table 3.2). Hiu et al. (1984) proposed a new species, namely Lactobacillus piscicola, to accommodate a
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Characteristics of the pathogens: Gram-positive bacteria 51 Character Production of: Arginine dihydrolase Catalase P-galactosidase H2S Indole Lysine decarboxylase Ornithine decarboxylase Oxidase Phenylalanine deaminase Phosphatase Gluconate oxidation Methyl red test Nitrate reduction Degradation of: AescuHn Blood Casein Cellulose, chitin, DNA Elastin, gelatin Hypoxanthine, lecithin RNA, sodium hippurate Starch Tween 20 Tween 40 Tween 60, Tween 80 Tyrosine, xanthine Growth at 37°C Production of acid from: Arabinose Fructose, glucose Galactose Glycerol Lactose, xylose Maltose, mannitol Sucrose - +/- - - - - - - - + - + + ((y) ND ND ND ND ND - ND ND ND ND - + + - - + + Table 3.2. Characteristics of fish-pathogenic lactobacilH Isolates of Isolates of Starliper et al. (1992) Austin and G. Stemke^ Car. piscicola + + ND ND ND ND + ND + + + ND + + ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND G + C ratio of the DNA + - + + + 35.2-36.5 mol % + + + + + 34-36 mol % ^ Unpublished data ND = Not determined
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52 Bacterial Fish Pathogens group of 17 isolates recovered from diseased chinook salmon, cut-throat trout and rainbow trout. Similar isolates were recovered from juvenile salmonids and carp in Belgium and France (Michel et al, 1986b) and from striped bass and catfish in the U.S.A. (Baya et al, 1991). Lactobacilluspiscicola became subsequently re-classified as Carnobacterium piscicola (Collins et ai, 1987). In addition, fish-pathogenic lactoba- cilli, with similarities to
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