anarchy, with each state having its autonomous power. There is no Global Governance in such a system. - For structural realists, human nature has little to do with why states want power. Rather, the architecture of the international system forces states to pursue power… it is simply rational for every state to acquire sufficient power to defend itself in the event that it is attacked. In such a system, states are forced to compete if they wish to survive. Structural realists ignore cultural differences among states and regime type because the international system creates the same incentives for all great powers difference between the two: A key difference between classical realists and structural realists lies in the motivation to power. The two schools view that question differently. Classical realists say that the will to power is linked to human nature, and that’s why their analysis of individuals and states is similar. Everyone is born with a will to power hardwired into their brain, and therefore nothing can really be done to improve that situation, for which reason war seems inevitable. There will always appear some asshole who wants to dominate others. For classical realists, power is an end in itself, a function of human nature, but for structural realists, power is a means to an end, and the ultimate end is survival. Unipolarity -a world with only one center of power or influence -when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the international order became unipolar because no single state or coalition of states could challenge the military might of the U.S. -India became a regional power and China grew to be the largest world economy Bipolarity -a type of world organization based on two centers of power or influence -the defeat of Germany and Japan in WWII and the decline of Britain and France in the 1940s transformed the old multipolar order into a new bipolar order, dominated by the U.S. and the Soviet Union Multipolarity -a world with multiple centers of power or influence -in the 1900 century the structure of international order was multipolar -a few European great powers, including France, Britain, and Russia dominated the world with the exception of the Western Hemisphere The Cold War and the balance of power: how was it “balanced”? The balance of power theory maintains that when one state or alliance increases its power or applies it more aggressively; threatened states will increase their own power in response, often by forming a counter-balancing coalition -in the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States both expanded their nuclear arsenals to balance against each other
Why China’s rise is unpeaceful? (Mearsheimer) Mearsheimer predicts that China will attempt regional hegemon status, resulting in conflict with the U.S. He expects the China to act like the U.S. did with the Monroe doctrine and the dismantling of other potential regional hegemons. Mearsheimer believes China will behave
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