The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the

The german advance into france was halted at the

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The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917 (the Eastern Front, by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory). In 1915, Italy joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States ini- tially remained neutral, though even while neutral it became an important supplier of war material to the Allies. Eventually, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, and the revela- tion that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U.S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but ultimately the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. [22] Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, and Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be de- feated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918. The 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracywith the Provisional Government, but continuing dis- content at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Repub- lic, and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Rus- sia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive. This offensive was initially suc- cessful, but failed to score a decisive victory and exhausted the last of the German reserves. The Allies
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