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1. Selecting a project–how and why?–an issue or a culture or *subculture--validity--support
2. Funding - government - private - personal - *NGOs - foundations3. Preparation - equipment - paperwork - approval or permission - licenses - travel visa - health preparations - recording equipment - advice - language training?4. Site selection–who exactlyare you going to research? - where will you stay? - how will you communicate with ‘home’? - get supplies? - where will you keep your stuff?5. Rapport–gaining acceptance and cooperation from the research culture - selecting and evaluating your informants - fitting into local customsSome Fieldwork Techniques1. *Participant observation2. Time allocation study3. Separating the real from the *cultural ideal- common knowledge4. Sources for data - kinship - personal life history - texts or oral traditions - historical documents, both internal and external5. KEEP REGULAR FIELD NOTES!!!Dangers of Fieldwork1. Disease–#1 cause of failed field projects–this works both ways–water–food–contagion2. Emotional distress3. Violence or death–human and animal--injury, attack, infection6
4. Imprisonment, hostage takingA good rule is to treat the host culture with sensitivity and respect. Youare the alien.Evolution*evolution= a change in gene frequencies over time*speciation= a change in the genome so significant that two or more populations can no longer interbreed.race = concept of race in humans is not relevant biologically,, my genes may be closer to anyone in this classroom thananyone else,, in the late 19thcentury it was SO important that men spent their entire careers assigning races to different human populations, steatopygia*natural selection= the provenphenomenon that certain *phenotypes, representing their genotypes, are preferentially selected for in an environment and consequently proliferate in excess. deleterious genes,, = 6 to 10 per person,, sickle cell anemia,, Tay-Sachs,, blood types,, AIDS survivor without a binding site for the HIV virus, can’t catch AIDS !! = 'delta 21a' allele Charles DarwinThe Human Biological ClassificationKingdom: animaliaPhylum: chordata7
Sub-phylum: vertebrataClass: mammaliaOrder: primatesFamily: hominidaeGenus and species: *homo sapiens (sapiens) (subspecies)Beginning about 60 mya the order *Primates became established in the African tropics.Beginning about 5.5 mya some became facultatively bipedal. about 4.5 mya *hominid line split from ape line,, one or more of these was genus homo,, humans have 23 chromosomes, chimps have 24, (SHOW human chromosome 2),, chimps and humans have >98% the sameDNA,, mice have about 60% the same DNA as humansBy 200 kya hominids had brains (cranial capacity) of 1100ccThey had the ‘Y5’ cusp pattern and 2:1:2:3 dental formula.Stereoscopic vision and reduced reliance on smell.There was a relatively steady increase in brain size and complexity until @40 kya. Broca’s area. Females ceased to have an estrus ‘season’ and became continuously receptive. Significant *sexual dimorphismdisappeared about 1 mya. Many mammals have much larger males than females, baboons about double,, I am about twice the mass of my wife, but some wives are bigger than their husbands Males and females interacted 8
more frequently, although a division of labor (and activities) persists to today.