Iron was used in the construction of the central domeThe theaters stark

Iron was used in the construction of the central

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Semper. Iron was used in the construction of the central dome.The theater’s stark classical styling had, for the architect, declaredly 217 the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900
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the architecture of modern italy 4.19 Giovanni Battista Filippo Basile,Teatro Massimo, Palermo, 1866–97
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political overtones, its “eminently Italic” elements “appropriate in this epoch of Italian renewal.”The theater was slow in construction and was finished after the architect’s death in 1897. On the same street, but at the other end of the cultural spectrum, a popular Politeama , or multifunctional playhouse, was built and dedicated, appropriately, to Garibaldi. Giuseppe Damiani Almeyda, engineer in the city administration, combined references to the Colosseum with a circus-like polychromy. He also used iron extensively throughout the structure. the last of papal rome Rome was left out of the first invigorating decade of Italian national unity.The Church was stripped of its territories, leaving Rome and its immediate environs as the dwindling base of papal temporal power. Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, who had been elected pope in 1846, chose the name Pius IX in memory of his predecessors who too had struggled with reformation and revolution. Some hoped that he might lead the nation instead of a king, but this idea was dashed in the virulent anticlericalism of the 1848 republican revolt in Rome and Pius’s exile to Gaeta. Once reinstated, he turned reactionary and consolidated his supranational Christian consensus with an increase of canonizations, ecclesiastical councils, and pilgrimage jubilees. Correspondingly, Pius erected monuments, restored churches, and made improvements to Rome’s public services.The proclamation of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary was commemorated by the erection of a column in Piazza di Spagna designed by Luigi Poletti in 1856.The Porta San Pancrazio on the Janiculum Hill was restored (it had been damaged during the French siege of Republican Rome).The Porta Pia, left unfinished by Michelangelo, was completed by Virginio Vespignani with an exterior facade modeled after the Arch of Titus.Vespignani, who finished San Paolo fuori le mura, was involved in many of Pius IX’s design programs. He restored many churches in Rome to an image of supposed original purity to recall a strength of the earliest Christian community. 219 the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900
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A Commissione di Belle Arti of lay city administrators funded and supervised all restoration work in consultation with an ecclesiastical Commissione Pontificia di Archeologia Sacra. Funds that came directly from the pope and his commissioners went to projects of strategic evangelical purpose.Vespignani was commissioned in 1862 to restore San Lorenzo fuori le mura, a complex of two basilicas joined and reoriented in the thirteenth century.The recovery of its Constantinian levels, including the original narthex, was facilitated by the stripping away of all later accretions. Renaissance ceilings and baroque tombs were removed, and the interior decorations, as at San Paolo, were entirely renovated. San Lorenzo was not restored to an
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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