During the 1990s key events combined with a paradigm shift in International

During the 1990s key events combined with a paradigm

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During the 1990s, key events combined with a paradigm shift in International Relations (IR) and security studies (particularly in Western developed countries with the end of the Cold War) (Paris 2001) to connect security to health (Enemark 2007; Collier and Lakoff 2008). Acute awareness was growing amongst Western states that they were not immune to health events such as infectious disease outbreaks. The outbreak and spread of HIV across developing and developed countries during the 1980s; fear of biosecurity attacks with the breakdown of security in laboratories across the former Soviet Union (Koblentz 2010); sudden outbreak of the plague in India in 1995 and the arrival of West Nile virus near New York City in 1999; and the return of ‘slow-burn’ diseases thought eradicated such as Tuberculosis (TB), measles and meningitis in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia (Price- Smith 2002). As well, new strains of disease, such as haemorrhagic dengue fever and drug-resistant malaria were on the rise due to significant climate change impact in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific (Kim and Schneider 2013). Andrew Price-Smith argues that prior to President Clinton’s appointment of the National Science Council on Emerging and Re- Emerging Infectious Diseases in 1995, developed states had grown complacent to the fact that ‘despite their enormous technological and economic power, it is extremely unlikely that developed countries will be able to remain an island of health in a global sea of disease’ (2002: 122). Clinton’s move created a wave of interest in other developed countries, particularly the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada, all shifting to appreciate and contextualise health threats in foreign policy terms (McInnes and Lee 2012: 32). Until then, on the rare occasion that health policy was discussed at the international level it was in relation to (mostly) infectious disease outbreaks such as plague and cholera, or large-scale efforts such as the mass immunisation programme led by WHO to eradicate smallpox. During infectious disease outbreaks, emphasis had been squarely placed on the responsibility of the host state and regardless of the capacity of its public health system to effectively respond (Fidler 1999). Meanwhile, the spread and scale of HIV/AIDS raised fears about its potential to threaten state cohesion and national economies. There was a particular focus on military forces being at risk of HIV infection, and the political insecurity these infectious could bring in societies (Singer 2002; Elbe 2006). The apparent potential for HIV/AIDS to cause state collapse or serious disruption that could ricochet throughout neighbouring states 256 S.E. DAVIES was considered a realistic scenario in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some parts of South and East Asia and the Pacific (Shisana et al. 2003; Ramiah 2006; Price-Smith et al. 2007). It was specific reference to the threat of HIV/AIDs on peacekeepers that led to the first resolution on health, Resolution 1308, being passed in the UN Security Council in 2000 (UNSC 2000). In response to these developments, a host of analysts, including Solomon Benatar (1998, 2002), Peter W. Singer (2002), Robert Ostergard (2002), called for IR to
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  • Winter '07
  • COOLEY
  • Probability distribution, global challenges

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