leaf area see mangrove canopy structure see

Leaf area see mangrove canopy structure see

This preview shows page 301 - 303 out of 328 pages.

leaf area index, 38, 245 (see mangrove canopy structure) seagrass, 37, 177 (see seagrass mapping and seagrass standing crop) geometric correction (see correction techniques) RMS (root mean square error), 101 geometric error Earth’s rotation, 94 instrument error, 94 orientation, 94 panoramic distortion, 94 platform instability, 94 GPS (Global Positioning System), 60, 98 accuracy GDOP (geometric dilution of precision), 61 PDOP (position dilution of precision), 61 airborne, 104 error, 61 GCP (Ground Control Points), 98, 104 UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) coordinates, 93, 95 habitat classification cost-effectiveness, 279 contextual editing, 142 ecological assemblages, 133 geomorphological, 132 mangrove community, 134 reefs, 155 multivariate (or cluster analysis), 134 Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient, 135, 150 PATN, 135 PRIMER (Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research) software, 137 seagrass habitat classes, 138 SIMPER (similarity percentage analysis), 137 scheme, example, 137 hardware CCT (computer compatible tapes), 90 CD (compact disk) , 59 CD-ROM, 59, 70 EXABYTE tapes, 59, 81, 90 image acquisition aerial photography, 75 (see aerial photography) airborne multispectral, 80 (see airborne multispectral imagery) cost-effectiveness, 279 satellite, 85 (see satellite imagery) image classification choosing a method, 152 cost-effectiveness, 279 multispectral ANNs (artificial neural networks), 288 supervised, 141, 143, 145, 152, 154, 158, 189 unsupervised, 141, 143, 144, 154, 189 parallelipiped, 147 photo (visual) interpretation, 141, 142 radiative transfer model, 290 spectral mixture modelling, 288 image processing contextual editing, 159, 160 effect on accuracy, 160 for mangrove habitat mapping, 184 pre-processing level, 89 SMA (Spectral Mixture Analysis), 162 IFOV (Instantaneous Field Of View), 43, 44 LAI (Leaf Area Index), 245 calculation, 247 definition, 245, 246 estimation from remotely sensed data, 251 CASI, 249, 250 Landsat TM, 249 SPOT XS, 248, 250 selection of an appropriate sensor for monitoring, 251 Landsat MSS (Multispectral Scanner) accuracy of habitat maps, 160, 190 data calibration, 112 interpretation, 87 discontinuation, 288 mapping algal blooms, 212 bathymetry, 222 cartographic, 33 coral and macro-algae, 158, 159 environmental sensitivity, 34 industrial waste, 210 mangroves, 184 oil pollution, 205 seagrass standing crop, 239 suspended sediment concentration, 204 planning field surveys, 35 Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) accuracy of habitat maps, 160, 190–192 cost-effectiveness, 281 data calibration, 112 interpretation, 87 supervised classification, 159, 160, 184 unsupervised classification case study, 145, 184 image resolution, 44 LAI estimation, 249 NDVI estimation, 247 productivity measurement, 35 radiative transfer code, 118 resource mapping, 33 algal blooms, 212 bathymetry, 222, 223, 226 coral reefs, 158, 160 Gelbstoff, 211 Index 313
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mangroves, 183, 189, 194, 195, 247 phytoplankton primary production, 257 seagrass, 176 seagrass standing crop, 239, 240, 242 suspended sediment concentration, 204 thermal discharges, 213 mangrove canopy structure AVI (Angular Vegetation Index), 250 canopy closure canopy light extinction coefficient, 247 field techniques for measuring, 250 measurement of canopy transmittance, 247 percentage, 245, 250 diffuse radiation, 248 direct radiation, 248 GEMI (global environment monitoring index), 250 LAI, 245, 246 NDVI, 247, 249 sun zenith angle, 247 mangrove, 37, 185 (see mangrove mapping) canopy closure,
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