38 N. Gokarneshan et al.
10.4 FTIR Investigations Figure 27 depicts the FTIR image of untreated viscose fabrics and fabrics treated with 3-bromopropionic acid and nanometals. The spectral features of untreated viscose reveal that it is clearly distinguished by its broad distinguished peak of the hydroxyl groups at 3396.6 cm - 1 (Fig. 27 a). Formation of a new peak is observed, at 1560 cm - 1 upon the treatment of viscose fabric with 3-bromopropionic acid (Fig. 27 ). This is a characteristic peak of the stretching vibration band of car- boxylate groups introduced to the fabric surface (El-Sayeed et al. 2015 ). This new peak can be taken as support for the reaction mechanism between the viscose fabrics and 3-bromopropionic acid (Fig. 28 ). When compared with viscose treated with only 3-bromopropionic acid, there are no changes in spectral features of viscose fabrics pretreated with 3-bromopropionic acid followed by treatment with nanometal oxides (Ti, Al or Zn) (Fig. 27 c – e). 10.5 Alkali-Combining Capacity of Viscose Fabric The relation between the concentration of 3-bromopropionic acid used in pretreat- ment and the value of alkali-combining capacity (carboxyl content) of the modi fi ed viscose fabrics is depicted in Fig. 29 . The fi ndings show that the untreated viscose fabric has a moderate amount of carboxyl content (50/meq./100 g fabric), attributed Fig. 27 FTIR image of viscose untreated fabric and fabric pretreated with 3-bromopropionic acid and nanometals oxide (El-Sayeed et al. 2015 ) Advances in Nanotextile Finishes — An Approach Towards Sustainability 39
to its nature and its manufacturing conditions. This value increases remarkably as the amount of 3-bromopropionic acid is increased during the modi fi cation. The pro- gressive reaction between the hydroxyl groups of viscose and the bromine atom of the 3-bromopropionic acid has been supported by the obtained data. Fig. 28 Proposed reaction mechanism of 3-bromopropionic acid with viscose fabric (El-Sayeed et al. 2015 ) Fig. 29 Effect of concentration of 3-bromopropionic acid on alkali-combining capacity of pretreated viscose fabric (El-Sayeed et al. 2015 ) 40 N. Gokarneshan et al.
10.6 In fl uence of 3-Bromopropionic Acid Concentration on Nanometal Oxides Uptake by Viscose Fabrics It is well known that the carboxylic groups are able to attract and/or act as anchor on metal oxides, such as TiO 2 through electrostatic interaction (Campus et al. 1999 ; Dhananjeyan et al. 2001 ). The discussion herein shows the ability of the carboxylic groups introduced to the viscose fabrics to attract the nanometal oxides such as aluminium oxide, zinc oxide, or titanium (IV) oxide from their suspensions to the viscose fabrics. With the increase in the concentration of 3-bromopropionic acid, the amount of nanometal uptake by the viscose fabric is also increased (Fig. 30 ).
- Fall '19
- N. Gokarneshan
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