At most they will change their judgments in later

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At most, they will change their judgments in later situations (Saltzstein & Sandberg, 1979) o Prior commitments restrain persuasion o Making a public commitment makes people hesitant to back down
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Why conform? - Informational conformity (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955) o Conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people o People want to make correct judgments desire to be right o In ambiguous situations people believe others are correct o Private conformity acceptance o Studies of norm formation (Sherif, 1935) Autokinetic effect Self-motion Apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark The light appeared than disappeared and finally reappeared Guess how far the light moved actually the light did not move Observed light along Observed light in a group changed their estimates markedly Asked to estimate again in private Final estimate closer to group’s estimate than the original Because of ambiguity participants turned to each other for guidance A simulation for how social norm develops in a society Providing a common frame of reference for people Transmission of false beliefs (Jacobs & Campbell, 1961) Persisted for give generations of participants - Normative conformity (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955) o Public conformity o Desire to be liked o Conformity based on a person’s desire to fulfill others’ expectations Often to gain acceptance o Often sways us without our awareness o Studies of group pressure: vision test (Asch, 1951) First tested privately Later tested in a group of 8 Shown a standard line and then chose the same line from 3 comparison lines Confederates errored on 12 of 18 judgments 37% conformed only 1% error rate in private Most people tell the truth even when others do not (Hodges & Geyer, 2006) Found self in awkward position Obvious that group was wrong Afraid of possible sanctions: ostracism, mocking
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When the participants conformed to a wrong answer The brain regions dedicated to perception became active When they went against the group Brain regions associated with emotion became active When people conform their perceptions may be genuinely influenced Who conforms? - Personality o Pinpoint the circumstances under which traits do predict behavior o Although internal factors seldom precisely predict a specific action They better predict a person’s average behavior across many situations o Predicts behavior better when social influences are weak o Temporary mods matter Positive moods induce more superficial information processing enhance conformity Negative moods reduce conformity o Pendulum of professional opinion swings Appreciation of individual personality and its genetic predispositions o Every psychological event depends upon the state of the person and at the same time on the environment Although their relative importance is different in different cases (Lewin, 1936) - Culture o
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