Social structure in global perspective mechanical

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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Mechanical & Organic Solidarity As these jobs become more specialized, we begin to depend on each other more and more. Durkheim noticed the inverse relationship between DoL and the collective conscience Collective conscience: the totality of all beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society As we begin to specialize in a job, our perspectives begin to differ from others who have different specialties
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Social Institutions Durkheim believed that modern societies will be torn between the need for job specialization (DoL) and the desire for independence. Role specialization (DoL) means that we are interdependent and so our statuses and social roles are constantly in flux. Organic solidarity keeps us together. (Durkheim) Mechanical Solidarity Organic Solidarity Definition “social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have, with minimal change” “social cohesion based on mutual interdependence in the context of extreme division of labor” Division of Labor Minimal Widespread Social Roles Few social roles Statuses and social roles are always changing Remember Mechanical = consistently operating in the same manner Organic = interdependent organs & systems within the human body, none of them can survive alone
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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Technology & Society Technology takes many forms, from a digging stick to a plow to a printing press to a cell phone Lenski: a society’s level of technology is critical to the way it is organized. As technology changes, new social forms arise, from preindustrial to industrial to postindustrial Available technology doesn’t narrowly determine the form that a particular society takes, but a low level of technology can limit the degree to which a society can take advantage of the possibilities that technology provides
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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Technology & Society Industrial Societies: a society that depends on mechanization to produce it’s goods and services Post-Industrial Societies: a society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the process and control of information. Main output: services Jobs that arose from this: public relations, human resources, computer information systems, etc.
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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Postmodern Life Postmodern society: a technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected, globalized society Through looking at these four elements, you get an idea of the key characteristics of postmodern societies today: Stories Images Choices Networks
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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Postmodern Life Stories We have many different – often competing – sets of norms and values Fewer people accept that a single all-inclusive story can unite everyone This can include a particular religious tradition or an all- encompassing scientific theory Having so many narratives undercuts any one single authority’s account of reality
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