Paraphilic DisordersParaphilias Fetishism Transvestic fetishismPedophilia* VoyeurismExhibitionismFrotteurismSexual sadism Sexual Masochism Note: It is not uncommon for individuals to present with more than one paraphilia*Pedophilia will be covered under the child abuse section
Causal Factors for ParaphiliasCausal/risk factors•Nearly all individuals with paraphilias are male•Paraphilia usually begins at puberty•Strong sex drive•Multiple paraphilias•Dependence on visual sexual imagery
Treatments for ParaphiliasMost people with paraphilias do not seek treatmentThis has resulted in limited research regarding treatment for paraphilic disordersWhen individuals do seek treatment, it is often after they have been convicted of a sexual offense
Gender DysphoriaGender dysphoria is a new term used in the DSM-5It takes the place of the previous gender identity disorderCharacterized by discomfort with assigned gender or sex-relevant physical characteristicsThere are differences in the way boys and girls with gender dysphoria are treatedYoung girls with gender dysphoria are treated better by their peers than are boys with gender dysphoria because cross-gender behavior in girls is better tolerated (e.g., “tomboys”)BoysEnjoy stereotypical girls’ activitiesAdult outcome: homosexualityGirlsPrefer traditional boys’ clothing, short hairAdult outcome: less clear ; May lead to homosexuality but only small studies done
Gender DysphoriaResearch from non-Western cultures shows that stigmatization of gender-nonconforming children is notuniversalMost children with gender dysphoria do not become adults with gender dysphoriaSeveral small prospective studies of girls with gender dysphoria have shown that 35 to 45 percent may show persistent gender dysphoria (leading to a desire for sex reassignment surgery in many), and approximately half had a homosexual orientation.Treatment includes psychotherapy and hormonal therapy Decisions regarding sexual reassignment vary across cultures/nations, with some advocating for earlier sexual reassignment and others advocating for sexual reassignment only when the individual reaches adulthood
Gender DysphoriaTreatmentPsycho-therapy is usually not effective Hormone treatment Surgical sex reassignment typically effective
RapeFrom the perspective of the victim, rape—which ranks among women’s greatest fears—is always an act of violence and is certainly not a sexually pleasurable experience, whatever the rapist’s motivation.Although rape victims include females of all degrees of physical
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- Fall '11
- Human Sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Orgasm