A History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991) and Patricia N. Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: Norton, 1987). American Indians Frederick Hoxie, A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 188o-192o (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984) and Brian Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1981) discuss changes in U.S. Indian Policy in the mid- to late-nineteenth century. Mexicans Douglas Monroy, Thrown Among Strangers (Berkeley: University of California Press, 199o), discusses the impact of white settlement on Indians and Mexicans in California in the nineteenth century. On Texas, see David Montejano, Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas (Austin: University of Texas, 1987). Asians For an overview of Asian American history, see Sucheng Chan, ed., Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in the U.S. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991). On Japanese immigration, see Yuji Ichioka, The Issei: The World of First Generation Japanese Immigrants 1885-1924 (New York: Free Press, 1988). On exclusion and other discriminatory laws against Chinese, see
13o Race, Nation, and Citizenship, 1878-1900 Charles McClain, In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994) European Immigration For an overview of late nineteenth-century migration from Europe to the United States, see John Bodnar, The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985). Matthew Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998), discusses the role of race in the process of immigrant assimilation. Imperial Republic On Hawaii, see Sally E. Merry, Colonizing Hawail: The Cultural Power of Law (Princeton: Princeton University Press, z000) and Rob Wilson, Reimagining the American Pacific (Durham: Duke University Press, z000) On the Philippines, see Stuart Creighton Miller, Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982) and Vicente Rafael, White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (Durham: Duke University Press, z000). Robert Rydell, AU the World's a Fair (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 19840 discusses the imperial self-image of the American nation as expressed at late nineteenth-century world's fairs. 6 THE CRITICAL PERIOD Ethnic Emergence and Reaction, 1901-1929 Andrew R. Heinze The presidency of Theodore Roosevelt and the collapse of Wall Street form the most conventional endpoints of the 1901-1929 period. But we may also think of the era in terms of Louis Armstrong and Al Smith. Born in 1901 into a poor African American family in New Orleans, Armstrong emerged in the 19205 as America's most influential musi- cian. Smith hailed from a poor family in New York City, and in 1928 he became the first man of Irish Catholic descent to run for the presidency on the ticket of a major party. Armstrong and Smith symbolized a new
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