How the ever present challenge of bringing clarity to

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how the ever-present challenge of bringing clarity to the conception of culture ultimately means unsustainability within marketing terms (Fig. 7 ). Like culture, changes/movements in the kaleidoscope are re fl ected in an endless variety of patterns, which are all interlinked with a succession of changing phases. New perspectives and new changes will create new images, with both interesting and continually varying focal points. What is focused on within the kaleidoscope is subjective to the user/researcher. As this focal point is explored in more depth and the kaleidoscope is turned, subtle changes are created that change the overall perception of the kaleidoscope image. There is nevertheless a core image presented; however, facets within the complete picture are constantly developing and changing. Issue Problems Sampling Opportunist sampling of cultures and non- representiveness of samples Instrumentation and Measurement Non equivalence of variables, nuances in Data Collection Researcher biases Data Analysis and Interpretation Ecological fallacy, qualitative versus quantitative data Adapted from Lim and Firkola (2000) Fig. 6 Issues and subsequent problems related to soft sciences (particularly anthropology: culture) The Virtuous Circle: Hard Sustainable Science 83
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This framework can be used as a means to inform marketers that the complex nature should be accepted and not necessarily challenged, as there are complex relationships within this soft science which are intertwined and ever evolving. It can, moreover, be used as a means to illustrate how such a concept ultimately results in misjudgements in terms of sustainable marketing (Fig. 8 ). In presenting this particular framework, the intention is to provide an overall scope of how such a soft science can interrupt marketing procedures with so many nuanced areas which disturb this particular business function. Perspectives are altered as a result of nuances within culture adjusting the reality of what is perceived and believed. Outcomes which may appear to have meaning and reasoning are not necessarily absolute. This ultimately results in misjudgements in terms of what sustainability actually constitutes. Moreover, and as it has been previously touched upon, this can actually act as a cover-up for potentially bigger problems. This cannot only be detrimental to a product or service being marketed, but also to overall business, the brand, its reputation and pro fi tability. It is obviously very dif fi cult to determine a single area in which misinterpreta- tions may appear, and this is why such a framework is so relevant. Even if Fig. 7 Kaleidoscope model of soft sciences: focusing on culture (anthropology as a soft science) These perspectives change slightly and adjust the reality of what is perceived and believed Kaleidoscope - vast and varied themes and perspectives intertwined and continually changing Result - Outcomes which appear to have meaning and reasoning are not necessarily absolute This ultimately results in misjudgements in terms of
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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