Has more levels more chances for filtering selective

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major determinant: levels an org. has (more levels, more chances for filtering) Selective Perception receiver selectively see/hear based on needs, motivations, exp, bg, characteristics, interests, expectations ( ) Defensiveness when ppl feel threatened, they tend to react in ways that reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding (become defensive) → verbally attack others, sarcasm, be overly judgmental, question others’ motives Information Overload = condition in which info inflow exceeds one’s processing capacity - emails, phone calls, faxes, mtg’s… more managers/professionals are complaining that they’re suffering from too much info - result: ppl tend to select out, ignore, pass over, forget info OR put off further processing until overload is over Language - words mean diff. things to diff. ppl (age, education, cultural bg influence lang. & def’s of words) *diff. departments: their own jargon / technical lang. *vertical levels: lang. of senior exec’s → unfamiliar management jargon - senders tend to assume the words they use mean the same to receiver ( ) Communicating Under Stress Tips: Speak clearly: be direct, avoid hiding behind words Be aware of nonverbal part of communicating: speak in neutral manner b/c tone, facial expression, body lang. send signals that may (not) be consistent w/ msg Think carefully about how you state things: often it’s better to be restrained so that you don’t offend listener ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION (ways that communication occurs in org’s) Direction of Communication Downward communi cation - communication flows from one level of a group/org to a lower level e.g. managers→employees (assign goals, provide instructions, offer feedback, etc) Upward communication - communication flows to a higher level e.g. performance reports prepared by lower management for review by middle / top management, suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, etc Lateral (Horizontal) communication - communication occurs among members of same workgroup / @ same level / among managers @ same level / among any horizontally equivalent employees - saves time (short-circuit vertical hierarchy & speed up action) - POV of manager: is + ve (faster; occurs w/ knowledge of manager), or ve (dysfunctional conflicts – vertical channels breached, members go above/around managers to get things done, actions taken or decisions made w/o knowledge)
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY Small-Group Networks communication networks = channels by which info flows formal networks = task-related communications that follow the authority chain (vertical) Chain follows formal chain of command - best if accuracy is most important Wheel relies on leader to act as central conduit (medium/channel) for all group’s communication - best if emergence of leader needed All-Channel all group members to communicate actively w/ each other - best if high member satisfc’n is most important The Grapevine informal networks = communications that flow along social & relational lines - comm’n free to move in any direction, skip authority levels, likely to satisfy members’ social needs grapevine = org’s most common informal networks (e.g. rumours) Rumours - will exist until wants/expectations creating uncertainty are fulfilled or anxiety reduced
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