Fronde - (French term) - noble rising against monarchical power (1648-49)i.Mazarin was chief of Louis xiv (he was only 5 yrs old at this time)2.Louis XIV's absolutism - 1660i.Had to escape upheaval as a childii.Believed noble uprisings were wrong and could no longer take placeiii.1660: Turns 21- refuses to rule through a minister (Mazarin). He will not tolerate resistance on part of the nobility. He will be the single, only power in the kingdom. Divine Right of Kingship.
iv.Divine right of kings - God's total power to secular events on earth. A monarchs power comes from God and since Gods power is absolute the monarchs power is absolute. v.Does not defeat aristocracy (military) but he tames them. Does this in such a way that they hardly notice (outlaws private armies who fight on the aristocracy's behalf - noble families have armed retainers). Only the king may keep an army in France. Impossible for nobility to wage warvi.Built an aura of power about his person that makes it necessary for any self respecting noble that wishes to maintain his status to be around Louis as well. a.If nobles want status or recognition of the monarch they have to be present at Versailles to obtain it. Moved nobility of France from country side to Versailles where he can keep his eye on them. If not there they will not get any of the benefits they are seeking. vii.In past administration was carried out by nobility in the countryside (taxation, etc…). Does not take this away from him but sets up a new administration staffed by men who he has appointed to carry out these duties. These men are bourgeois in origin (do not come from noble families - middle class)a.Nobility are happy because he has not taken away their offices so they have income being generated from these offices but another bureaucracy is established. Louis keeps them happy at Versailles. He has rendered them toothless. b.Louis makes them. Sets them up and gives them status such that they have never had before. Makes them very loyal to him. Has no inclination to do him harm because he has established them. c.Each province is headed by these new men (intendants - men who preside over very large provinces). Constantly being circulated around so that they can not control/take over/ or have power over any province. Never will they have the opportunity to formulate what the aristocracy had in the past to take over his rule. d.Nobility of the Sword - old nobilitye.Nobility of the Robe - new nobility that Louis gives titles to. (Men picked because of great talent and success). Exercises power on behalf of Louis , this takes the power away from the nobility.
viii.Embarks on a series of wars in Europe designed to expand French territory and establish French greatness on the continent. Kept nobility happy. a.French obtained colonies overseas - especially in the America'sb.1648 - after the 30 year war. Colonizes the sugar colonies. France is very wealthy c.Internally country is a peace. Peasants and bourgeoisie