Hostile attributional bias Cognitive deficits: lack of careful information processing and planning; deficits in problem solving o Aggression: deficits in generation of adaptive solutions o ADHD: inability to think before respond Mathieson et. al (2011) Conceptualization: Relational Vulnerability Model Hostile Attribution Bias → Relational Aggression Gender: girls more likely Participants 3rd, 4th, 5th graders Low-to middle-class Measures o Relational aggression (teacher, peer) o Relational victimization (teacher, peer) o HAB (self)
o HAB predicts relational aggression in girls with high emotional sensitivity and high levels of relational victimization Study Study Strengths o Test of specific conceptual model o Representative sample o Multi-informant report Study Limitations o Concurrent design: cannot determine direction of effects o Relational vulnerabilities may have transactional effects Environmental Influences Types of Environment Influence Shared environment: environmental factors that produce similarities in developmental outcomes among siblings(e.g. Exposure to poverty, marital conflict, similar parenting) Nonshared environment: environmental factors that produce differences in developmental outcomes among siblings(e.g. Differential parental treatment, peer influences) Attachment Theory (Bowlby) Focus on Impact of Early Relationships Role of Attachment Behaviors o Establish and maintain emotional bond through relationship-enhancing behaviors (smiling, clinging) o Parent as secure base o Proximity seeking o Safe haven Categories of attachment (Strange situation o Secure o Insecure-avoidant (don’t show a lot of distress when their mom leaves, o Insecure-ambivalent (child may get very distressed when caregiver leaves, but when the caregiver returns, they are unable to soothe them. Ambivalent: may approach them and seek proximity but then back away and be angry. They want the caregiver yet are not being soothed. May even show anger towards caregiver when they come back) Family Influences Parent-Child Relationships, Parenting Styles and Practices Affect/emotion Control Marital Relationships Sibling Relationships
Family as a system Peer Influences Peer Group (e.g. victimization, rejection, deviancy)
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- Spring '13