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erotic and titillating. Promote the marital act and hopefully pregnancy and birth of children. The female here is meant to be seen as visually a very beautiful, idealized female with perfect body. The symbol of the Italian wife presented for the male viewer known as “the male gaze” philosophy or method. This type of Venus is referred to as a Venus pudica- a modest Venus type- inherently beautiful and sexual but appropriate. This is an ideal woman from an Italian male point of view- modest and virtuous but naturally beautiful and intended to arouse sexual feelings,but always within the context of married love. *Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, Italy, mixed media paint on plaster, c. 1498 CE- This is Leonardo’s Last Supper-a painting on a wall in a dining hall called a refectorium in a monastery in Milan, Italy. It is not properly called a fresco painting, although it sort of looks like one, because he was an inventor and was trying to do something here with the paint that was different.He mixed fresco with oil and other media on plaster, and result was a technological disaster. The painting began to fall apart almost immediately. Over the past 500 years, this painting has been through many restorations, conservations, overpaint, and corrections, now recently with a conservation effort to remove the overpaint. The Last Supper becomes an important kind of workof art commonly found in Christian households but this is specifically from a Catholic point of view. It shows Jesus with his Twelve Apostles, his closest followers who, in Catholic tradition, become the first bishops in the Catholic Christian Church. After Jesus’s resurrection and before his ascension into heaven, he sends these gentlemen out to tell the world about the “good news,” the gospel, which, during Jesus’s time, was not a reference to the Bible because the Christian Bible did not exist at that time. They originated as oral traditions or stories that were eventually written down. The gospel, or “good news,” is a reference to the incarnation and the sacrifice and resurrection of Jesus himself. Back then, preaching wasn’t about the Bible, it was preaching about the person of Jesus, the incarnation This is a typical Renaissance painting, the figures are balanced left and right. They’re situate within an architectural setting- note the linear perspective. The insert gives us a very clear sense of the kinds of orthogonal or the was these artists laid out, very scientifically, these orthogonal in a very geometric kind of way in order to create space that seemed habitable and real and a space that recedes three-dimensionally. This was a Passover meal. Jesus was Jewish, and the Last Supper of Jesus was a Passover meal. Passover is one of the most important holy days, holy periods, in the Jewish liturgical calendar.