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"God is dead" movement was based on the view of a transcendent God so what's the point of having God•Whenever nihilists think and then trust their thinning, they are somewhat contradictory•"Breath" - the death of art itself•Because it doesn't give people hope, it tends to offer people substitutes for hope (i.e. hedonism – pursuit of pleasure)•Break down of periodization: Pre-modern, modern, and post-modern•Premodern world is the world of faith and superstition◦Philosophy is the footnote to Plato◦All aspects of life were viewed as a product of divine intervention (rain, crop yield, etc.)◦the people who carried the power were the priests (whether Jewish or pagan)◦Positive feature: emphasis on community◦Truth, for the most part, is absolute
•Modern world is called the triumph of science and reason◦Explain things through nature rather than just a supernatural explanation◦Advances in astronomy, maritime navigation, advances in the sciences that leads to a shift in people's focus to more physical than spiritual explanations for the world◦Religious power is not the sole owner of truth◦The individual begins to get some kind of ascendency over community◦There's a progressivism associated with it and people take for granted that things are getting better◦Marked by a sort of self-assurance or confidence in the human ability◦High view of humanity that was crushed by WWI and WWII•Postmodern world◦Core characteristic is diversity◦Many see postmodernism as of new frontiers◦Tends to be a reaction to modernism and tends to be less optimistic, more suspicious, and more pragmatic◦Does not assume that humans can know everything◦Prone to ambiguity◦Tend to be more cynical◦Many argue that our allegiance to institutions tends to lose its grip◦