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(2018) posit that barcoding systems have facilitated healthcare delivery by having a specific identifier on each prescription medication and respective patients. Such specificity allows for the healthcare providers to scan data regarding the medication, patients and employee identification codes to ascertain that the right combination of dosage, route, time, patient and the medication are precise as planned before the actual drug administration. The highest influence of the barcoding systems is at the administrative phase of the drug utilization procedure which allows for proper mitigation of medication errors. As such, medication scanning allows the healthcare providers to notice any mishaps with the dosage rates, the actual drug, or the form of prescribed dosage before the medication administration is carried out. As I researched for the capstone project, I found out that the healthcare delivery system is expensive in general and such costs can be mitigated through proper and timelyapplication of clinical decisions systems. Burke & Ryan (2014) observe that the general health expenditure in approximately 50-200% higher in the U.S than in any other developed nation. Studies by Charles, Cannon, Hall & Coustasse (2014) and Weant, Bailey & Baker (2014) approximate that $9 billion was accounted as part of the
REFLECTIVE JOURNAL9healthcare expenditures that were wasted in 2004 due to duplicate patient examinations and assessments. Weant et al. (2014) posits that CPOE systems have proved to be useful in reducing healthcare expenditures through elimination of duplicate tests. Zikos & DeLellis (2018) opines that the use of CPOE and CDSS is to enhance healthcare providerperformance through reinforcing medication prescribing through optimized medication dosage, enhancing adherence to prescribed protocols and mitigating the overall patient s length of hospital stay. The CPOE devices further advance time efficiency and healthcare provider’s practices such as rapid drug turnaround and faster prescribing all which reducecosts, save time and improve productivity. Ethical ConsiderationsAs I was researching for the capstone project, I came across diverse ethical concerns that ought to be put in consideration for better patient outcomes. One of the key ethical issues is the aspect of disclosing medication errors. Studies by Ahmed, Saada, Jones & Al-Hamid (2019) and Guillod (2014) highlight that despite the fact that most physicians are well informed that medical errors ought to be disclosed to respective clients immediately they transpire, in most scenarios such encounters are never reported. Instead of making arrangements to disclose such errors to respective clients and their families, they opt to take part in intricate cover-ups under the ruse of shielding physician-client relationship and not inducing harm to the clients. Such undertakings are egregious infraction of healthcare ethical principles, codes and protocols and are not justifiable under any circumstances. Guillod (2014) posits that by choosing not to disclose errors, the nurse or physician involved consciously opts to place personal interests above those of the client to the risk or even harm of the victim which directly leads to the violation of