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That are not important in this way you select what is

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that are not important. In this way, you select what is relevant and you aremore likely to remember it.There are different strategies to improve our memory by making encodingmore effective. The first of these iselaboration, or linking one fact to otherbits of information. You can do this by thinking of examples that illustrate anidea. For example, you may have difficulty remembering the meaning of theword ‘hypothesise’, but you will remember it immediately if you use it in aneveryday personal context, such as ‘There are heavy clouds about and Ihypothesise that it may rain, so I must take my umbrella to work.’Second, another way of improving encoding is through usingvisualimagery. You can create pictures or visual images of things you want toremember. For example, if you want to remember to post a letter, buy bread,and get a book from the library after work, it would help you remember allthree if you make a mental picture of a letter, a loaf of bread, and a book.You could use other forms of mental imagery as well, such as forming asemantic code based on word meanings. For example, if you want toremember someone’s name, it may help to link the name with a recognisablefeature of that person. If you meet someone called Nonnie who has veryattractive eyes, you could link ‘Nonnie’ and ‘nice eyes’ to remember hername.Third, encoding is easier when you can make the informationpersonallymeaningful. For example, you read that fears can develop through classicalconditioning, and you apply this to your own fear of snakes. By applying theinformation to your own experience, you are likely to remember whatclassical conditioning is. When the information is encoded, it is available forfurther processing in the brain.If information is not encoded, it will notbe remembered in future.2. StorageEncoded information is ready for storage in memory.Storage involvesholding or maintaining information in the memory store. If we think about
computers again, storage is similar to saving information in a file on thecomputer’s hard disk. Storage is usually seen as involving different stages.2.1 Sensory MemoryInformation is kept in its original sensory form for a very brief time(a fraction of a second). It is so brief that you are often only aware of anafter image rather than the stimulus itself. For example, if you are standingin the dark and move a torch quickly in a circle, you will not see one point oflight from the torch. You will see a continuous circle, which is the after imageof the torchlight. We do not remember everything we see and hear (sensoryinformation). Information is held in sensory memory just long enough for partof the information to be selected for longer storage.2.2 Short-term MemoryShort-term memory is a temporary store for small amounts ofinformation. Short-term memories are encoded as images or as sounds. Wekeep information in short-term memory for approximately 20 seconds.

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