83 prioritizing requirements requirements are

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8.3 Prioritizing Requirements Requirements are prioritized during requirements engineering using dif- ferent prioritization criteria in all sub-activities. Requirements can be pri- oritized by their order of implementation, for example. Due to the different prioritizations in the various sub-activities, the priority of a requirement can be determined by one or more attributes (e.g., priority of the contrac- tor, priority due to urgency of implementation). 8.3.1 Method for Requirements Prioritization Determining goal and constraints of prioritization In order to prioritize a set of requirements, a goal (i.e., purpose) of priori- tization must be defined first. In addition, the constraints of prioritization are documented, such as the availability of different stakeholders and groups thereof or the resources available for prioritization. Determining prioritization criteria Depending on the goal of prioritization, the criterion for prioritizing the requirements (or the combination of two or more criteria) is chosen. The following are typical examples of prioritization criteria: Cost of implementation Risk Damage due to unsuccessful implementation Volatility Importance Duration of implementation (i.e., how long it takes to be implemented) Determining Stakeholders Depending on the goal of prioritization and the selected prioritization criteria, it is usually necessary to involve different stakeholders in the prioritization process. By choosing appropriate stakeholders, it can be guaranteed that the required expert knowledge is available during the prioritization process. The stakeholders that ought to be involved are, depending on the goal and prioritization criteria, developers, project managers, customers, or users, for example.
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8.3 Prioritizing Requirements 119 Selection of artifacts In addition, the requirements to be prioritized must be selected. When selecting requirements, one must make sure that the selected requirements stem from the same level of abstraction. Prioritizing requirements from considerably differing levels of detail will lead to inconsistent and errone- ous results because stakeholders tend to assign a higher priority to requirements at higher levels of abstraction than to more refined and con- crete requirements. Selection of prioritization techniques On the basis of the determined properties of the prioritization (e.g., constraints, criteria of prioritization, etc.), a suitable prioritization tech- nique or a combination of multiple techniques is selected. 8.3.2 Techniques for Requirements Prioritization For prioritization, multiple techniques exist. The techniques mainly differ with regard to the time and effort needed but also with regard to the suit- ability of the different prioritization criteria and project properties.
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