: the ability to make sense of our own and other people’s actions by thinking though what is going on in our own and other people’s minds (ability to empathize) - attachment theories : through relationships with caregivers (often mother or fa- ther) that individuals learn how to related to others and develop a sense of self and others • secure v. insecure attachment • insecure attachment may be linked to difficulties in developing the ability to ‘mentalise’ 25
Thursday, February 21, y - social factors : social class, gender, culture, society type, and social change may influence mental health - Million argues that contemporary western society social norms are breaking down and there is increasingly fast social change. this is reducing social struc- tures and limits placed on the individual increasing the risk of a personality disor- der - in some social structures/ cultures, heavers will be accepted or valued while dif- ferent in others. can be an indicator of mental health problems - biopsychosocial model suggest that biological, psychological, and social fac- tors all come together to explain the development of personality disorder Personality Disorders - personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterized by long-lasting maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience , exhibited across many contexts and deviating notably from those accepted by the individual’s culture - psychological disorders involve exaggerations of normal tendencies - Classification • Cluster A (odd, bizarre, eccentric): - Paranoid PD : a pervasive distrust of others. guarded and suspicious looks for clues or suggestions to validate his fears. strong sense of per- sonal rights. easily feels shame and humiliation, bears grudges. with- draw from others and to struggle building close relationships. Projec- tion : principal ego defense, involves attributing one’s unacceptable thoughts and feelings to other people - Schizoid PD : natural tendency to direct attention toward one’s inner life and away from the external world. detached and aloof and prone to in- trospection and fantasy. no desire for social or sexual relationships, in- different to others and to social norms, lacks emotional response. gen- erally well functioning, and quite untroubled by their apparent oddness. 26
Thursday, February 21, y - Schizotypal PD : oddities of appearance, behavior, and speech. unusual perceptual experiences, and anomalies of thinking similar to those seen in schizophrenia. magical thinking, suspiciousness, and obsessive rumi- nations. fear social interaction and think of others as harmful. •
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