Q11: Define ascending and descending tract (1 point). A: Ascending tract: the neural pathways by which sensory information from the peripheral nerves is transmitted to the cerebral cortex. Descending Tract: he pathways by which motor signals are sent from the brain to lower motor neurones Q12: List the components of a reflex arc (2 points). A: Receptor, Sensory neuron, Central nervous system, Motor neuron, and effector Q13: Define simple reflex and give at least 2 examples of reflexes (2 points). A: Simple reflex: a rapid uncomplicated and automatic response involving very few neurons Examples: patellar reflex and the Achilles reflex Q14: Name the spinal nerves (1 point). A: 31 pairs of spinal nerves named after the vertebra superior to their point of emergence. The exception to this rule is the cervical nerves
Chapter 10 Homework Chapter 10 – The Brain and Cranial Nerves – (20 points) Q1: Give the location and functions of the four main divisions of the brain (2 points). A: Cerebrum: largest and most superior part of the brain, consists of left and right hemispheres. Cortex is the site for conscious thought, memory, reasoning, perception, and abstract mental functions, all localized within specific lobes Diencephalon : Between the cerebrum and the brain stem. Thalamus sorts and redirects sensory input. Hypothalamus maintains homeostasis and controls autonomic nervous system and pitu- itary gland. Brain Stem: Anterior region below the cerebrum. Connects the cerebrum and diencephalon with the spinal cord Cerebellum: Below the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Coordinates voluntary muscles. Maintains balance and muscle tone. Q2: Differentiate between sulci and gyri (2 points). A: Sulci: Shallow grooves that separate the gyri Gyri: elevated portions in the cortex. Q3: Name and describe the three meninges (2 points). A: Pia Mater: the innermost layer around the brain. Made up of delicate connective tissue. It holds blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the brain and spinal cord. Arachnoid: The middle layer. Loosely attached to the Pia mater by weblike fibers forming a space where CSF circulates.. Blood vessels pass through this space. Dura Mater: The outermost layer, the thickest and toughest. It is the layer that is the most pro- tective. Q4: Describe the function of the cerebrospinal fluid, how it is formed, and the purpose of the ventricles (2 points). A: The function is to support nervous tissue and to cushion shocks that would otherwise injure these delicate structures. It forms in four spaces within the brain called ventricles. A network of ependymal cells and blood vessels known as the choroid plexus makes cerebrospinal fluid within all four ventricles. Q5: Name, locate, and describe the functions of the lobes of the cerebral cortex in each lobe of the cerebrum (3 points).
A: Frontal Lobe: Lies anterior to the central sulcus, provides conscious control of the skeletal muscles.
- Spring '18
- Mark Bolke