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Describe the instrument, tool, or survey used in each article.The study was conducted using a descriptive cross-sectional survey (Bortz, Ashkenazi, & Melnikov, 2015, p. 27). The respondents in the study completed a hard copy of the questionnaire in order to calculate the needed study sample and evaluate theclarity of the questions. A Web-based questionnaire was then created in various Israeli Hebrew-speaking Web forums (Bortz, Ashkenazi, & Melnikov, 2015, p. 27). Confidential, aggregate demographic data were obtained from the prison Director of Nursing. Focus groups were conducted in correctional facility classrooms and women were counted when entering and leaving the classrooms. Each group was conducted in English and lasted approximately 1 hr. Participants freely shared information and stimulated other participants to elaborate, contradict, and add to the discussion. Groups were allowed to answer each question until no inmate had additional new information to offer. While one interviewer presented guiding questions to the inmates, the second interviewer kept written field notes. Participants were not known to theresearchers and no prison staff were present in the classroom during the focus group discussions (Dinkel & Schmidt, 2015, p. 230). Women in each group were given access to information, participated in meaningful dialogue with each other and researchers, were treated with respect and dignity, and identified opportunities for choice in healthcare education (Dinkel & Schmidt, 2015, p. 233).
Summarize the discussion about the validity and reliabilityof the instruments, tools, or surveys used in each articleThe study was approved by the Tel Aviv University Ethics Committee. The 43 respondents were recruited from a pool of researchers by a snowball method. The respondents were told that their participation in the study was entirely voluntary and that all information would remain confidential. Their agreement to answer the questions was viewed as consent to participate in the study (Bortz, Ashkenazi, & Melnikov, 2015, p. 27). The questionnaire was back-translated, and Cronbach’s coefficient α values for the translated version in the current study of personal, transcendental, environmental, and communal domains. After back-translating, face validity for the questionnaires were attained (Bortz, Ashkenazi, & Melnikov, 2015, p. 28).