27 33 96 70 69 85 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Puntland Somaliland

27 33 96 70 69 85 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

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27 33 96 70 69 85 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Puntland Somaliland Both Internal migrant Returnee 23 47 45 51 46 39 41 28 26 7 11 16 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Hargeysa Burao Garowe Bossasso Internal migrant Both Returnee
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23 IOM Somalia - Research on Youth, Employment and Migration In reality, many migrants come back destitute, via the same routes they had left . Only a very small number of returnees come back through assisted returns programmes. Returnees are often seen sceptically by potential employers, who do not understand why a person who made it abroad and was resourceful enough to live in a foreign place would want to work again in Somaliland. 15 Returnees have less of an advantage when they come from neighbouring countries such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Yemen and Djibouti, where educational and employment opportunities are more limited. Returnees face additional issues such as the inability of speaking Somali, or the local dialect fluently as well as the feeling of being alien to the local lifestyle, both of which can render finding employment more difficult. “Not being able to speak Somali fluently is a big challenge for me. The culture and the people here are really challenging too. Some of the behaviours of people here are often really strange, which I just don’t understand them. It is really proving the difficulty to fit in – everything you do seems to be wrong in their eyes. It is very frustrating.” (Female case study participant, migrated from Syria, Hargeysa). Returnees may see no solution to their problems in Somaliland or Puntland – pushing them to migrate again abroad. Confirming this difficult socio-economic integration, a FGD participant in Bossasso noted that Migrants have their own networks, but in a larger community, they are less connected and therefore less likely to be hired.” The reality of return 2: Most (90%) are from Africa not Europe or North America (3%) The dual assumption that Somali returnees are coming back from North American and European education and labour market systems, and that they are more likely to find jobs is challenged by the results of the quantitative survey. Firstly, the vast majority of the respondents interviewed returned from Africa, and not from Europe or North America. Secondly, the reality experienced by most migrants on returning to Somalia is that of a very difficult integration within an environment that is already undermined by multiple political, social and economic issues. The social stigma attached to living abroad naturally depends on the type of migration considered: “It is one thing to migrate to the UK and be sent back after 6 months; it is another to live in a protracted refugee situation in Dollo Ado or Dadaab for 20 years, with one or two generations born in the camp, and voluntarily return to your home country. For the latter returnee category, there is generally no real income perspective, no network anymore, and their land has been grabbed” (UNHCR Somalia). Out of the 26% (108 respondents from Somaliland and 82 respondents from Puntland) of the
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  • Fall '17
  • IOM, Human migration, Somaliland

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