Tupac amaru ii a peruvian claiming descent from inca

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Tupac Amaru II : a Peruvian claiming descent from Inca rulers who led a failed indigenous rebellion in the 1780s. Tupamaros : flamboyant urban guerrillas of Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. Tupi, Tupinambá : semisedentary, forest-dwelling people who inhab- ited large parts of Brazil at the arrival of the Portuguese. Closely related to the Guaraní people of Paraguay. ultramontanism : an orientation within the Catholic clergy that stressed loyalty to the pope above loyalty to royal or national authori- ties. The Jesuit order was famous for its ultramontane loyalty. United Fruit Company : US commercial banana empire that consoli- dated earlier operations in the Caribbean Basin, to become one of the world’s first multinational corporations in the early 1900s. Getúlio Vargas : ruler of Brazil in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, whose nationalist, populist, pro-labor tendencies dominated Brazilian democracy into the twenty-first century.
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A23 G L O S S A R Y viceroyalty : the largest administrative subdivision of the Spanish and Portuguese empires in America, ruled by a viceroy who acted in the place of the king. Pancho Villa : a Mexican revolutionary initially based in the north who led an army of miners, railroad workers, former cowboys, and oil field laborers. William Walker : fundamentalist Christian from Tennessee who tried to colonize Nicaragua for the United States in the mid-1800s. Emiliano Zapata : revolutionary general who led an army of indig- enous villagers and became an icon of the Mexican Revolution.
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A25 FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS From its original conception to the final selection of its title and cover art, W. W. Norton editor Jon Durbin had an active intellectual involve- ment in the first edition of this project at every stage. He is, quite simply, this book’s co-creator. Karl Bakeman had a similar role in the second edition. Jon Durbin rejoined the team for the third edition. Since then, he has convinced me of the need for a companion reader, and helped to integrate more pedagogical support into the text and the teaching package. I am also grateful for the efforts of Travis Carr, who helped manage the manuscript, Trish Marx, who handled photo research, Caitlin Moran, who served as the project editor, and Eric Pier-Hocking, who served as the production manager. In addition, six reviewers commissioned by W. W. Norton contributed very substan- tially to the manuscript, thanks both to their specialized professional expertise and to their general understanding of what makes a good introduction to Latin American history for US readers. Let me, therefore, hereby acknowledge my debt of gratitude to Peter Beattie of Michigan State University; Alan Durston of York University; Sarah Franklin of the University of North Alabama; Frank Guridy of the University of Texas-Austin; Mark Healey of the University
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A26 F U R T H E R A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S of California-Berkeley; and Edward Murphy of Michigan State University. I am also grateful to all the reviewers who helped shape the second edition of the companion reader, Born in Blood and Fire: Latin
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