Tupac Amaru II : a Peruvian claiming descent from Inca rulers who led a failed indigenous rebellion in the 1780s. Tupamaros : flamboyant urban guerrillas of Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. Tupi, Tupinambá : semisedentary, forest-dwelling people who inhab- ited large parts of Brazil at the arrival of the Portuguese. Closely related to the Guaraní people of Paraguay. ultramontanism : an orientation within the Catholic clergy that stressed loyalty to the pope above loyalty to royal or national authori- ties. The Jesuit order was famous for its ultramontane loyalty. United Fruit Company : US commercial banana empire that consoli- dated earlier operations in the Caribbean Basin, to become one of the world’s first multinational corporations in the early 1900s. Getúlio Vargas : ruler of Brazil in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, whose nationalist, populist, pro-labor tendencies dominated Brazilian democracy into the twenty-first century.
A23 G L O S S A R Y viceroyalty : the largest administrative subdivision of the Spanish and Portuguese empires in America, ruled by a viceroy who acted in the place of the king. Pancho Villa : a Mexican revolutionary initially based in the north who led an army of miners, railroad workers, former cowboys, and oil field laborers. William Walker : fundamentalist Christian from Tennessee who tried to colonize Nicaragua for the United States in the mid-1800s. Emiliano Zapata : revolutionary general who led an army of indig- enous villagers and became an icon of the Mexican Revolution.
A25 FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS From its original conception to the final selection of its title and cover art, W. W. Norton editor Jon Durbin had an active intellectual involve- ment in the first edition of this project at every stage. He is, quite simply, this book’s co-creator. Karl Bakeman had a similar role in the second edition. Jon Durbin rejoined the team for the third edition. Since then, he has convinced me of the need for a companion reader, and helped to integrate more pedagogical support into the text and the teaching package. I am also grateful for the efforts of Travis Carr, who helped manage the manuscript, Trish Marx, who handled photo research, Caitlin Moran, who served as the project editor, and Eric Pier-Hocking, who served as the production manager. In addition, six reviewers commissioned by W. W. Norton contributed very substan- tially to the manuscript, thanks both to their specialized professional expertise and to their general understanding of what makes a good introduction to Latin American history for US readers. Let me, therefore, hereby acknowledge my debt of gratitude to Peter Beattie of Michigan State University; Alan Durston of York University; Sarah Franklin of the University of North Alabama; Frank Guridy of the University of Texas-Austin; Mark Healey of the University
A26 F U R T H E R A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S of California-Berkeley; and Edward Murphy of Michigan State University. I am also grateful to all the reviewers who helped shape the second edition of the companion reader, Born in Blood and Fire: Latin
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- Fall '19
- Indigenous peoples of the Americas