implications of being a minority in the United States and thus having secondary status. − Understanding the worldviews of culturally diverse clients means understanding how they are formed. Of special importance is the ability to analyze how locus of control and locus of responsibility may not only influence the client’s perspectives, but yours as well.
MICROAGGRESSIONS IN COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
− Microaggressions are “brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages” to a target group like people of color, religious minorities, women, people with disabilities, and LGBT individuals. − These microaggressions are often subtle in nature and can be manifested in the verbal, nonverbal, visual, or behavioral realm and are often enacted automatically and unconsciously (Solorzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000).
− Researchers have used the templates of modern racism and sexism to understand contemporary forms of oppression such as homonegativity, religious discrimination, and ableism. − Within all domains, overt expressions are characterized by blatant unequal and unfair treatment of individuals (e.g., gender biased-hiring practices) while covert expressions are subtle (e.g., using “he” to convey universal human experiences). − What makes this phenomenon particularly complex is that such ambiguity and alternative explanations obscure the true meaning of the event not only for the person who engages in the behavior, but also the person on the receiving end of the action.
– Microaggressions are “brief and commonplace daily verbal or behavioral indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults that can potentially have a harmful or unpleasant psychological impact on the target person or group.” – Microaggressions can be delivered environmentally through physical surroundings, such as when there is absence of students of color on college campuses, few women in the upper echelons of the workplace, or limited or no access for disabled persons in buildings (e.g., only stairs and no ramp). – Microaggressions: › Are subtle, unintentional and indirect › Often occur in situations where there are alternative explanations › Represent unconscious and ingrained biased beliefs and attitudes › Are more likely to occur when people pretend not to notice differences, thereby denying that race, sex, sexual orientation, religion or ability had anything to do with their actions Evolution of the Isms: Microaggressions
Three Types of Microaggressions: Microassault, Microinsult, and Microinvalidation
› Blatant verbal, nonverbal or environmental attack intended to convey discriminatory and biased sentiments (e.g., epithets like “spic” or “faggot”).
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