Paid to them ¾ in return song got back some horses

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paid to them ¾ In return, Song got back some horses, which were needed for their army, and other animals like camels and sheep ¾ Overseas Trade ß Foreign trade encouraged by the Song government ß Maritime trade to southeast Asia ß During Song times, maritime trade, for the first time, exceeded overland foreign trade ß First reported use of the magnetic compass ß Demand for money 997: Song government minting 800 million coins a year (2 ½ times the largest output by the Tang Dynasty) 1085: minting 6 billion coins a year ß World’s first government issued paper money (1120s) ¾ Technological advances ß Woodblock printing invented in the 8 th century one worker could produce 1,000 pages a day each block could yield 20,000 copies ß Ca. 1040: movable type invented ß Use of gunpowder to propel missiles The needs of the army also brought Chinese engineers to experiment with the use of gunpowder. In the wars against the Jurchens in the twelfth century, those defending a besieged city used gunpowder to propel projectiles at the enemy z The Southern Song (1127-1279) ¾ Song allies with the Tunguts ¾ 1125: Liao defeated ¾ Jurchen attack the Song capital of Kaifeng in 1126 ¾ The Song Emperor Gaozong (r. 1127-62), flees to the south and establishes his capital as Hangzhou ¾ Because the economic center of the country had already shifted south, loss of the north did not ruin the Song economy. Sixty percent of the population was still under Song control, along with much of the most productive agricultural land ¾ At the southern end of Grand Canal, Hang Zhou was the natural center of trade
¾ Schools were everywhere in capital z Chinese Painting ¾ Ink brush painting ¾ No ruins of landscape in painting compared with western paintings (harmony of Yin and Yang) z Gardens ¾ Chinese gardens influenced by Daoism (not controlled by human) z Reformers and Anti-Reformers ¾ Wang Anshi (1021-1086) ß Political and social reformer Cash instead of commodities for tax payments Land survey to deal with fraudulent records loans for peasant farmers (“green sprout” loans) “Mutual Responsibility System” z Neo-Confucianism ¾ Women can participate in lots of activities ¾ In Song times, widows commonly remarried z Foot-binding ¾ began during Song ¾ the result of women wanting to make themselves more beautiful Yuan China, and the Mongol Empire; Korea: the Kory ŏ Dynasty z Yuan China, and the Mongol Empire ¾ China and Korea had accrued many centuries of experiences of northern nomadic. ¾ Daily life of Mongols in 13 th C was strikingly different from their own China, Persia ¾ They moved with animals in summer and winter. (seriously affected by deceases) ¾ The brilliant but utterly ruthless Tumejin. ¾ They are brave in battle ¾ Their disposition is cruel ¾ After centuries of living in the north of China, why did the Mongols leave their homelands?

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