Copd chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a

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COPD ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ) - a condition in which there is a fixed and progressive obstruction to air flow. COPD is a designated label for a group of lung diseases. The two diseases that generally are associated with COPD are Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of disorders that have in common persistent airflow obstruction. Pathologically, chronic bronchitis and emphysema are distinct, bronchitis being limited to the airways and emphysema to the pulmonary parenchyma. From a clinical point of view, the distinction between bronchitis and emphysema is difficult. Both processes may be present in the same patient and both are characterized by expiratory flow obstruction. Furthermore, the patients with both processes often present with the same symptom; namely, dyspnea on exertion. Both may have airway hyperreactivity. The situation is further complicated by the fact that patients with either disease may have airway hyperreactivity as is seen in asthma. Consequently, lumping these conditions into this single label, COPD, is useful. Crackle Family – Crackles, which are explosive sounds associated with an airway opening, can be often detected by multiple microphones on the chest. We assume that crackles occurring within 5ms likely represent the same event of airway opening and call them a crackle family. The crackle with highest deflection we call the mother crackle and the corresponding deflections at other channels we term daughter crackles. As a rule of thumb crackles in patients with CHF and Pn are transmitted over an area about the size of the palm. Crackle Rate - This is defined as the number of crackles per breath or the number of crackles per second. Normal person may have up to two crackles per breath. Very high crackle rates are found in interstial fibrosis.
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Emphysema - The American Thoracic Society defines emphysema as an anatomical alteration of the lung characterized by an abnormal enlargement of the air spaces distal to the nonrespiratory bronchioles accompanied by destructive changes of the alveolar walls. FEV1 - The forced expiratory volume is the amount of air that the patient can exhale in one second. Fine Crackles (also known as fine rales) - These are intermittent explosive sounds that have been described as being similar to the crackling sounds heard as wood burns. On auscultation fine crackles are in general higher pitched (over 400Hz), less intense and of shorter duration than coarse crackles.
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