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intra-subject direct replication and 2) inter-subject direct replicationIn SCD research, there are three primary ways to ensurewithin-study replicationall of which involve repeatinga change between two adjacent conditionsSequentialintroduction and withdrawaldesigns include the repetitionof the basic A-B comparison within a single participantTime-lagged designs includethe repitionof the basic A-B comparison across a set of 3or more participants, behaviors, or contextsRapid interative alteration designs include repetition of an _A-B_ comparison, with single session replicationand comparisonsDirect intra-participant replication (historically termed (intra-subject) refers to repeatingthe experimental effect with the sameparticipant more than once in the samestudyInter-participant direct replication (historically inter-subjectreplication) refers to repeating the experimental effect with differentparticipants When employing SCD's, what is considered the minimally acceptable amount of successful inter-participant (or inter-group) replications before moving on to a systematic replication attempt? THREEVariables you should consider in determining whether three replications are an adequate number include A)baseline data stability, B) consistency of effect with related findings C) magnitude of effect D)adequacy of controlling threats to internal validity Clinical ReplicationClinical Replication(as defined by Hersen and Barlow) refers to “the administration of a treatmentpackage containing two or more distinct treatment procedures by the same investigator or group.. investigators…administered in a specific setting to a series of clients presenting similar combinations of multiple behavioral and emotional problems, which usually cluster together.”In clinical replication, the (and associates), combining techniques, demonstrate the intervention package with participants whodemonstrate similarclusters of problem behaviorsSystematic ReplicationA systematicreplication is when a researcher carries out a planned series of studiesthatincorporate systematic changesfrom one study to the next and identifies them as a replicationseries, a systematic replicationclearly existsHersen and Barlow (1976) defined systematic replication as “any attempt to replicatefindings from a direct replication series, varying settingsbehavior changeagents, behavior disordersor any combinationthereofFailure to replicate can leadand has, led to the discovery of limitationsof current interventions and the discovery of new interventions
Different applied researchers may suggest slightly differentdefinitions of systematic replication, but general guidelines on when and how to proceed with a systematic replication attempt are quite similar(pg. 90)Replication and External ValidityA common criticism directed at SCRD research methodology always has been that findings cannot generalizebeyond the individualThe dynamic nature of SCD research may improvegenerality to clinicaland educationalcontexts Regarding limitations of large group research, intra-subject