Nk cells macrophage and neutrophils 11 describe the

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NK cells, macrophage and neutrophils 11. Describe the process of phagocytosis. It engulfs and digests the pathogen from outside the cell, and presents it to the adaptive response system 12. How does opsinization enhance this process? It uses serum coating process of phagocytosis.
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13. What is the role of inflammation in the innate response? They migrate into the tissue releasing inflammatory mediators that cause pain. 14. What is the role of NK cells? How is the specificity of the target cells on which they act determined? Natural killer cells usually directly kill the pathogen if the inhibitor receptor doesn’t recognize or bind to the self MHC 1 plus self peptides. 15. What are the functions of chemokines, cytokines, interferons, interleukins and defensins? Chemokines- chemoattractants Cytokines- molecules that stimulate immune response Interferons- antiviral proteins Interleukins- promote fever, lymphocyte proliferation, T cell maturation Defensins- form pores in bacterial cell membranes 16. What is complement? Describe its activation. 30 distinct components made by the liver and found in plasma of healthy people. Needs to be cleaved to become active in a cascade formation, ie enhanced phagocytosis (opsonization), activation of leukocytes and lysis of bacterial cell walls. 17. What are the goals of the adaptive immune response? Provide a long term protection via antibody production and cell mediated mechanisms. 18. What are the humoral components of the adaptive response? The cell mediated? Humoral- neutralize bacterial toxins and viruses, opsonize bacteria, activate complement, and interfere with attachment to mucosal surfaces.
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