Advisory Board. Similar tailor-made approaches need to be tested, developed and implemented for the remaining 10 (both gazetted and proposed) FNRs in the network. The enabling legislative and policy environment for promoting sustainable land and natural resource use practices in, and improving sustainable livelihood options for, local communities living in and around the forest reserves is well developed in Tanzania. A number of pilot projects have successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of these approaches in contributing to the measurable recovery of adjacent forest ecosystems. However the scaling up (in both space and time) of short-term sustainable land use and livelihood pilots has been constrained by inter alia the following: limited in situ implementation of the agreement”. The Act however, provides no guidance on how the benefits arising from forest management under JFM are to be shared, or the preferred mechanism for doing so. The draft Joint Forest Management Guidelines (MNRT, 2007)proposed that direct cash payments be made by the Ministry of Finance and External Affairs (MFEA) to participating communities, but this was not supported by the MFEA. 26 At the reserve level, these JMAs typically take the form of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
capacity (staff, funding and skills) of the responsible public institutions to facilitate, support and enable sustainable land use practices and alternative livelihood initiatives beyond their initial introduction; a lack of meaningful incentives for communities to adopt these alternative land and natural resource use practices over the longer term; continued low levels of awareness prevailing among community members about the need to protect forest resources, and the means to do this; weak cooperative governance mechanisms between the district, villages, community members and forest management authorities to administer any agreed sustainable levels of forest use; poor and inconsistent enforcement of existing laws and regulations against forest degradation and deforestation by the responsible public institutions; and a lack of political will (at the village, district and national level) to protect forest resources, due to conflicting sectoral interests. Barrier 2 : Insufficient funding allocated for improving the management of the sub-network of FNRs The administration of FNRs is predominantly financed from government budget allocations (human resource costs are paid directly by the Treasury, while CAPEX and OPEX costs are paid from the annual budget allocations to TFS). Annual budget allocations for the operational budgets of the FNRs are not adequate to meetthe requirements for even basic standards of reserve management, or sufficient to maintain the infrastructure and equipment in the reserves. Indications are that the government budget allocations to TFS for the operational costs of Forest Reserves (and more specifically FNRs) are, in the light of other more pressing demands on the national
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- Spring '19