A conscious effort to establish Arabic schools to maintain culture and language; lobbying government to include Arabic Studies in university curricularEstablishment of several Arabic Schools: schools of Arab aat sao paolo universityLebanese Schools in 1900, Sarah Shahine and Literature….4) Post war (after 19450 arabic LiteratureTaha Hussein ( Egypt), Dean of Arabic literature ( Ameed al adab al-Arabi.Some key names: Badr Shakir al-sayyab (Iraq) – Khalil al Moutran (Lebanon). From chapter 10, Jalim Barakat text)1.Novels of reconciliation: depicting social reality in a state of harmony are combined with concern about threatening changes. Example: Novels of Tawfiq al- Hakim (1933,1938)2.Novel of Exposure: Exposing the weakness of society and its institutions without exhibiting real commitment to the restructuring of the existing order. Example: Novels ofNagib Mahfouz, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra, Tayyib Salih3.Novels of revolutionary change: Committed to revolutionary change in society, have more pronounced ideologies. Examples: Novels of Kahlil Gibran, Abdelrahman Munif, Abdel Rahman sharqawi Egyptian earth, Ghassan Kanafani, Yuffuf al Qa’eed, War in the Lord of Egypt, Ghassan Kanafani, Men in the sun. Monday March 12th2018In the early 19thcentury, when a considerable part of the male population of Cairo b-perhaps had may have been literate, only a few women were educatedSchool for girls in Lebanon started in 1834School for girls in Cairo started in 1871Americans founded the American University of Beirut in 1866 and the French founded the Jesuit university in Beirut in 1875. These other establishment welcomed boys and girls alike from all religious affiliations.