Maintenance in certain ranges of physiological processes Homologous Chromosomes

Maintenance in certain ranges of physiological

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Maintenance in certain ranges of physiological processes Homologous Chromosomes: pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance, and same genes Homozygote: having two identical alleles for a given gene Hydrocarbon: organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen Hydrophilic interactions: the attractions between water and polar R groups on the outside of the protein - Typically polar; loves water Hydrophobic interactions: type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude the water - Typically non-polar; hates water Phospholipids are both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Hydroxyl group: chemical group consisting of oxygen atom joined to a hydrogen atom. Molecules possessing this group are soluble for water and are called alcohols - -OH; polar Independent assortment of genes: random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes crossed with a homozygote recessive - Refers to the distribution of genes into gametes - Heterologs all separate differently into different gametes Induction: reasoning from specific to general
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- Drawing general conclusions with no prior knowledge Ionized molecule: a molecule that is either negatively or positively charged Linkage: the tendency for two or more non-allele genes, to be inherited together because they are located more or less on the closely on the same chromosome - Segregation is caused by linkage* - Sex Linkage = Hemophilia, a blood clotting disease, predominates in European princes* - Genetic Linkage = refers to genes on the same chromosome* Lipid: any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water - Macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms - Includes fats, oils and waxes Lysosome: a membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of animal cells and some protist - Cell organelle filled with enzymes need to break down certain material in the cell - No membrane-bound organelles - Contains enzymes for digestion* Methyl group: a chemical group consisting of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms; may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom (CH3) - Hydrophobic; nonpolar Mitochondria: organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesis ATP - Key role in respiration - Harvest energy from ATP - Mitochondrial matrix = Krebs cycle occurs here; inside the mitochondria - Ni internal membrane* - Location of the Electron Transport Chain* Monomer: the subunit that serves as the building blocks of a polymer - Simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers mRNA: messenger RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein - RNA that carries codon sequence to the ribosome - Initiation Factor = proteins that bind to mRNA to initiate translation
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Nucleus: an atoms central core containing protons and neutrons; the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains genetic material in the form of chromosomes, made up of a chromatin; cluster of neurons - Control center of the cell - Contains DNA and RNA -
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