PSYC 129 Midterm 1 Study Guide.docx

Cornea outer layer of eye focuses the light iris the

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· Cornea – Outer layer of eye. Focuses the light · Iris – the colored part that opens and closes · Pupil – the black hole that allows light to enter. · Lens - the layer inside your eye that flips the light · Retina – the area where rods and cones are. This is where the light energy travels. o Rods – Low Light photoreceptors, only one color – b&w – can tell more about the shapes and definition o Cones – Colored photoreceptors, RGB, detailed images o Ganglion neurons – these form the optic nerve which sends the impulses to the thalamus and then to the visual cortex o Bipolar neurons – synapses with both rods/cones, and also the ganglion neurons 1/3 of Cerebral Cortex dedicated to visual analysis and perception Primary visual cortex – V1, back occipital lobe (back of head), area 17, and then area 18, and then splits to either MT (Mid Temporal) and to Parietal OR goes to V4(color) and then to IT (Inner Temporal) and then to Limbic (Temporal) or Semantics (Ventral, what) Ventral Stream – WHAT? – lower region – identity what we see
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Visual Agnosia – when what is damaged – doesn’t know what it is but can take action with it. “Martian Art Gallery” Dorsal/Parietal Stream – HOW? – upper region – how to interact with an object Optic Ataxia – When how is damaged – doesn’t know how to use the object, but can identify what it is. BALINT’S SYNDROME Old Pathway – Retina > “midbrain” Superior Colliculus > “projects” Pulvinar – higher cortical areas (Parietal lobe) --- the ‘where’ pathway New Pathway – Retina > Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) (relay station) – Area 17 – Conscious Experience (30 visual areas) Left visual field goes into Nasal of left eye, and Temporal of right eye. Right visual field goes into Temporal of left eye, and Nasal of right eye. Optic Chiasm – when the nasal nerves cross Pareidolia – seeing faces that are not really faces – Fusiform face area (FFA) When damaged – leads to prosopagnosia – face blindness Occipital Lobe – Visual processing Parietal Lobe – senses of touch, area for which the homunculus lives, the small being that retains our feelings. Starts from genital, to feet, legs, then chest, head, hands, face, and then mouth. Face is over sized, as well as hands, Mouth, nose, genital, and ears. Temporal Lobe – language, visual memory, and emotion association. Frontal – physical movement, consciousness, differentiating, dopamine Gestalt Laws – visual perceptions as more than the sum of stimuli, organized according to various laws. Closure (belonging), Common Fate (parts move together), and Contiguity of close- together features (smooth curves) – taken up by AI community Cognitive Psychology – denies perception and behaviors are controlled by stimuli, but emphasize importance of general background knowledge and more-or-less logical thought processes. Rules = Syntax, Meaning = Semantics Bottoms up – holes being close together and form straight lines or smooth curves (starts and grows) Top down – knowledge/assumptions of what kind (big picture and breaks down) Constancy - recognition, Grouping – gathering, and Contrast – relationship to self
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Direct perception – we are unable to provide a unique description of the world without sensations to self (poverty of stimulus). This is information based.
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  • Fall '09
  • temporal lobe, ganglion cell, superior colliculus

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