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3.Short ridge- A Ridge that commences, travels a short distance andthen ends. 4.Island- A single small ridge inside a short ridge or ridge ending that isnor connected to all other ridges.5. Ridge enclosure- A single ridge that bifurcates and reunites shortly afterwards to continue as a single ridge.6. Spur- A bifurcation with short ridge branching off alonger ridge.7. Bridge- A short ridge that runs between two parallel ridges.8.Delta - A Y shaped ridge meeting.9.Core- A U turn in the ridge pattern.10.Minutiae- Major feautures of a fingerprint.Personal Identification1. Fingerprint2. DNA3. Forensic Anthropology4. Facial reconstruction5. Hair comparisons Forensic MedicineForensic medicine- the science that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal question.Clinical Forensic Medicine- involves an application of clinical methods for the administration of justice.Paulus Zacchias - father of legal medicine as well as father of forensic psychiatry.
Medical Ethics- deals with the moral principles which should guide members of the medical profession in their dealings with each other, their patients and the state.Medical Etiquette - deals with the conventional laws of courtesy observed between members of the medical profession.A doctor should behave with his colleagues as he would have them behave with himself. Hippocrates- father of medicine, discussed lethality of wounds and formulated medical ethics.Forensic Pathology- deals with the study and application of the effects of violence or unnatural disease in its various forms in or on the human body, in determining the cause and manner of death in case of violence, suspicious, unexplained, unexpected, sudden, and medically unattended death.Pathology- is the precise study and diagnosis of disease.Pathologist- a medical doctor who conducts an autopsy.Autopsy - post mortem examination of a corpse.Other names of an autopsy1.post-mortem examination2.necropsy -particularly as to non human body3.autopsia cadavarem4.obductionObjectives of Autopsy1. To find out the time of death.2. To find out the cause of death.3. To find out the manner of death, whether accidental, suicidal or homicidal.4. To establish the identity of the body.5. In new born infants, to determine live birth orviability.Exhumation- is the digging out of an already buried body from the grave.Disease- is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism.Cadaver- also called corpse, is a dead human body.Carcass- dead body of an animal.Injury- is damage to a biological organism which can be classified on various bases.
wound- is a type of injury in which the skin is torn, cut, or punctured or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion.Classification of wound1.open wound - is a break in the skin's surface resulting in external bleeding.