Mutation is the result of a base substitution that

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mutation is the result of a base substitution that resulted in a stop-codon or a different amino acid, this could be determined by sequence gene and annotating the gene (i.e., figure out start and stop codon, what amino acids are coded by the gene). 2. A cell that carries a conjugative plasmid can transfer a strand to a recipient cell – now both cells have the plasmid. Both cells can then transfer a strand to other recipient cells, which in turn can transfer it to others. If the gene was one a chromosome, the way it could be transferred to another cell is via transformation or transduction. Since there is only one copy of the gene (in bacteria), then only one recipient would receive it, and the recipient would not transfer it to another cell unless it died and lysed, or was infected by a phage capable of transducing it. 3. DNA synthesis can only occur in one direction, and the process is dependent on a primer or a molecule to the DNA polymerase can add nucleotides to. DNA polymerase cannot initiate DNA synthesis on its own (unlike RNA polymerase which can bind the template and start synthesizing
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RNA). This means that DNA synthesis on the two DNA strands goes in opposite directions. This is the basis of why one of the strands has to be made as "the lagging strand" using Okazaki fragments. 4. Substrate level phosphorylation involves an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from a phosphorylated organic molecule to ADP. SLP does not employ an electron transport chain or proton gradient to do this. Oxidative phosphorylation involves the oxidation of a nutrient, where the electrons are passed through an ETC and the energy is used to establish a proton gradient. The protons then pass through a membrane bound ATPase which adds the phosphate to ADP. Both process need to be energetically favourable, and both require enzymes. 5. a) Aerobic photoautotroph, aerobic chemoheterotrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs –be near light source, can tolerate oxygen in the environment (phototroph actually makes molecular oxygen as a by-product, hetertroph would use it), high levels or organic matter, inorganic matter would also be present. b) Anerobic chemoheterotroph, anaerobic chemolithotrophs – high levels of organic matter (maybe tilled into the earth) and inorganic matter, low concentration of oxygen. c) and the rest – would expect to find anaerobic chemolithotrophs mostly – lots of inorganic matter, low oxygen concentrations
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