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05 06 07 Electrophysiology of Neurons and Excitable Cells

Activation opening followed by inactivation closing

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activation (opening), followed by inactivation (closing), during depolarization K+ Channels remain open during depolarization
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Voltage-Dependencies of Na+ and K+ Channels as Examples of Positive and Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Depolarization  Opening of Na+ Channels  Greater Depolarization Negative Feedback Depolarization  Opening of K+ Channels  Lesser Depolarization
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Voltage-Dependencies of Na+ and K+ Channels is the Basic Mechanism of Action Potential
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Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods
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Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Result in One-Way Propagation of Action Potentials Absolute Refractory Period (Na+ Channel Inactivation) Relative Refractory Period (K+ Channel Activation)
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Structure of a Neuron
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Myelination as Electrical Insulation
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Axon Myelination and Saltatory Conduction of Action Potentials
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Mechanism of Spontaneous Generation of Action Potentials by Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Potential : Spontaneous depolarization caused by Na+ and Ca2+ influx through hyperpolarization-activated funny channel. Action Potential : Inward Ca2+ current causes SA nodal depolarization; outward K+ current causes SA nodal repolarization.
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Ionic Basis of Cardiac Action Potential Upstroke Phase of Depolarization : Activation of fast Na+ channels Plateau Phase of Depolarization: Activation of slow Ca2+ channels and inactivation of K+ channels Repolarization Phase : Opening of voltage-sensitive K+ channels
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Synapses
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