Preference act utilitarians argue that getting what

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Preference act utilitarians argue that getting what you want is the only good, and getting what you do not want is the only bad Pluralist act utilitarians argue that a number of different things are intrinsically good or intrinsically bad Classical act utilitarianism Hold that we should aim at the best net balance Some act utilitarians have argued for the best average Some act utilitarians have argued for “maximin” Some act utilitarians have argued for only considering good Negative utilitarians argue for only minimizing bad 9/13: Actual results vs expected results Actual results standard says that the measure of an action is what it actually produces The expected results standard says that the measure of an action is what a reasonable person would think it would produce Act Utilitarians “Praiseworthy” vs “blameworthy” Mill's argument For everything that a person desires,he desires either because it is a part of happiness or because it is a means to happiness
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Intro into Ethics Professor: Jacob Affolter The only possible reason to believe that something is desirable is that at least one person actually desires it So, there can be no evidence for the claim that anything is intrinsically desirable except happiness If happiness is desirable for the individual, then the general happiness is desirable for a group of individuals Therefore, the most good for the most number is desirable for a group of individuals Didgwicks arguments Three principles: Rationality: it is rational to prefer more happiness for oneself than less happiness Universalizability; Moral rules should not treat people differently unless there is a reason for doing so Dquality: from the point of view of the universe, no person happiness is more important than any other person's happiness. 9/16 Objection to Pluralist utilitarianism Pluralist utilitarianism faces the problem of “incommensurability” Problems with preference utilitarianism On the most basic level” It threats malicious and benevolent preferences as equal It treats preferences that come from free choice as equal to those that come from manipulation or injustice Adaptive preferences- are used to less than normal or being mistreated and coming to believe it is what is right for them. Act Utilitarianism Problems Too demanding Absurd levels of self-sacrifice Impartiality is not always good People ought to favour their families over other people A world of totally impartial people would not be worth living Leads to absurd conclusions In some cases, act utilitarianism pretty clearly tells us to do things that are immoral 9/20: What is an argument?
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  • Fall '19
  • Jacob Affolter

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