He suggested that the amount of physical and

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forth his theory to streamline one main proponent of retention: involvement. He suggested that, “…the amount of physical and psychological energy that a student invests in their collegiate experience (both social and academic) directly influenced departure decisions” (Berger, 2012, p. 25). This can be examined by looking at available extracurricular events and participation, networking supported at the institution, travel abroad opportunities, honors-level courses, language, and other multicultural opportunities, etc. During the nineties when this theory was proposed it is also important to consider how connection and involvement were coming to change with the internet being introduced and expanded. 6
RETENTION THEORY TIMELINE 2001 Kuh’s Student Engagement Theory George Kuh, is recently recognized for his theory of time spent engaged in an institution whether it be academic or social activities which lend to a students commitment and success (Kuh et. al., 2008, p. 541). This theory helped to promote institutions to provide students with experiences alongside education in part of those institutions’ hidden curriculum. As described by Kuh, activities that are focused on educational improvement help to increase retention and are even able to equalize the opportunity and success available to minorities. In a time of much focus on the turn of the century, Kuh’s Student Engagement Theory matched and reaffirmed Astin’s Student Involvement Theory. 7
RETENTION THEORY TIMELINE References Berger, J. B., Blanco Ramírez, G. & Lyon, S. (2012). Past to present: A historical look at retention. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success (pp. 7-34). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Kuh, G., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., Kinzie, J., & Gonyea, R. (2008). Unmasking the Effects of Student Engagement on First-Year College Grades and Persistence. The Journal of Higher Education, 79 (5), 540-563. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from Schuh, J. H., Jones, S. R., & Torres, V. (Eds.). (2016). Student services : A handbook for the profession . Retrieved from Seidman, A. (2005). College student retention: Formula for student success . Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Shannon, D. (2002). Effective Teacher Behaviors and Michael Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 43 (1), 43-46. doi:10.2307/40323986 8

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