NE101 Lecture Notes

Patterning genes are expressed at different levels in

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Patterning genes are expressed at different levels in different parts of the organism Hox genes are the most well-known patterning genes
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regulate anterio-posterior patterning Are vertebrate and cephalopod eyes homologous or examples of convergent evolution? In addition to Pax6 (hox gene used in eye development), molecules that detect light are shared b all animals, indication a common evolutionary origin (homology) Convergence in animal eyes Cephalopods: successive infolding of the exterior body wall. Vertebrates: outfolding of brain followed by invagination. Adult eye look similar, but developmental processes are very different, suggesting convergent evolution. The wide taxonomic diversity of eyes are shared light sensing molecules and patterning genes suggest early animals had at least rudimentary eyes. Animals evolved more elaborate eyes many time independently, but all used conserved molecular machinery. The different evolutionary routes to camera eye development account for difference in photoreceptor orientation October 19, 2012: Animal Models of Behavior – Intellectual Traditions in the Study of Animal Behavior 1. Neuroethology 2. Experimental Psychology 3. Neurology/Psychiatry/Translational Neuroscience Neuroethology Experimental Psychology Neurology/Psychiatry/Tra nslational Neuroscience Main goal Understanding the neural adaptations involved in natural animal behaviors Using controlled behavioral testing to investigate fundamentals of cognition, either directly in humans or in animal models. Understanding and treating behavioral disorders and other nervous system diseases. Levels of analysis Ultimate ≈ proximate Proximate >> ultimate Proximate Type of science* Basic Basic and applied Applied Taxa studied All animals (rarely humans) Mostly vertebrates (including humans) Mostly vertebrates (including humans) Types of behavior studied Natural behaviors with clear effects on fitness (basic sensory processes, finding food and mates, avoiding predators, navigating). Behaviors believed to be homologous in humans and the animal models (basic sensory processes, learning, memory, spatial abilities, emotions). Behaviors caused by disease states (anxiety, depression, loss of memory). Where behaviors are studied Field and lab Lab Lab Origins of field Organismal biology Psychology Medicine * Goal of basic research: to uncover how the natural world works without any specific problem to solve Goal of applied research: apply solution to a specific problem Animal models are mostly rodent models Advantages of rodents as models: Practical habituate well to humans small but not too small
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relatively cheap to house/care for rapid maturation, large litters easily bred in captivity year-round Technical reasonably closely related to humans (fairly homologous nervous systems) October 22, 2012: Animal Models of Behavior (cont.) Fruit flies (Drosophila) as animals models Same practical and technical advantages as rodents (to even greater degree)
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Patterning genes are expressed at different levels in...

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