The range of fish associate bacteria pathogens and commensals that may infect

The range of fish associate bacteria pathogens and

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Austin (1989)—have begun to address the problem. The range of fish-associated bacteria (pathogens and commensals) that may infect humans include: Aer. hydrophila (causing diarrhoea and septicaemias); Campylobacter jejuni (gastro-enteritis); CI. botulinum type E (botulism); CI. perfringens (food-poisoning); Edw. tarda (diarrhoea); Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (fish rose); Legionella pneumoniae (atypical pneumonia); Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis, Weil's disease);
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Conclusions 409 Myc. fortuitum (mycobacteriosis; fish tank granuloma); Myc. marinum (mycobacteriosis; fish tank granuloma); Ph. damselae (necrotising fasciitis, bacteraemia); Plesiomonas shigelloides (gastro-enteritis); Ps. aeruginosa (wound infections); Ps. fluorescens (wound infections); Salmonella spp. (food-poisoning); Sta. aureus (food-poisoning); Str. iniae ("mad fish disease"); V. cholerae (cholera); V. parahaemolyticus (food-poisoning); V. vulnificus (wound infections) (Novotny et ai, 2004). The source of some of these organisms may well be the waters in which the fish are to be found. Others occur in the tissues and the digestive tract of apparently healthy fish. For example, Plesiomonas shigelloides and V. vulnificus have been cultured from the digestive tract of pike (Gonzalez et ai, 1999) and numerous fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast (DePaola et ai, 1994), respectively. According to DePaola et al. (1994), a seasonal fluctuation was recorded with minimum and maximum numbers occurring in Winter and April to October, respectively. The highest populations of V. vulnificus (10^ bacteria/100 g) were associated with the gut contents of bottom-feeding fish, especially those that consumed molluscs and Crustacea. In comparison, plankton- feeding fish contained 10^ cells of V. vulnificus I X^^g. Overall, the incidence of V. vulnificus was comparatively uncommon in offshore fish, instead being restricted to specimens from estuaries. Also, V. cholerae was recovered from sharks (Grimes et al., 1993). Sta. aureus has been isolated repeatedly from striped bass reared in flow- through and recirculating systems (Nedoluha and Westhoff, 1995). The transfer to humans will probably reflect the handling of diseased specimens. Uptake into humans may be via cuts or grazes, or, less likely, via the digestive tract. Aeromonas hydrophila Aer. hydrophila has been implicated as an opportunistic and occasionally as a primary pathogen of humans. In one example, a fish farm worker developed a bacterial septicaemia, which was attributed to Aer. hydrophila, and presumed to have resulted from exposure in the fish farm (Austin, 1981). Edwardsiella tarda Enterics have occasionally spread from fish to humans, and caused gastro-enteritis/ diarrhoea. In one documented case, Edw. tarda from tropical ornamental fish, Pterophyllum scalare, caused diarrhoea in an infant (Vandepitte et al., 1983).
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410 Bacterial Fish Pathogens Leptospira interrogans During 1980 and 1981, three cases of leptospirosis attributed to serogroup ictero- haemorrhagiae, of which one was a fatality, occurred in fish farm workers in the U.K.
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  • Bacteria, representative, gram-negative bacteria

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