Place at the origin of all political formations even

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place at the origin of all political formations, even of those whose consequences have been altogether beneficial. Unity is always effected by means of sexual brutality.” (Ernest Renan “What is a Nation?”)Renan wrote this in 1882 and in his paper proceeds to demystify the details of a nation, the criteria which a nation should be measured against. Renan points out that the details of a nation's history that are left out often are no less important than the details remembered, but that unflattering events frequently are suppressed. Citizens are obliged to forget the negative aspects of their history in order to sustain an image of a nation with which they will want to identify, and so the act of forgetting becomes a crucial part of their national memory. Renan argues that one must accept (or ignore) a certain amount of historical error to buy into nationalism. It is crucial to the creation of nationalism. If one looks to carefully at history the narrative of nationhood, it unravels quickly.3) “Since even ignorant commoners are talking in this way, I fear that if the bakufu does not decide to carry out expulsion, if its handling of the matter shows nothing but excess of leniency and appeasement of the foreigners, then the lower orders may fail to understand its ideas and hence opposition might rise from evil men who have lost their respect for bakufu authority. It might even be that bakufu control of the great lords would itself be endangered. That is the ninth reason why we must never choose the policy of peace.” (Tokugawa Nariaki “Debates over the Opening of Japan”)“Debates over the Opening of Japan” by Tokugawa Nariaki discusses the immigration of foreigners into Japan. Arguing for the Sonno Joi, which was the faction that wanted to completely close off the borders of Japan, and wanted to start war with nations attempting to emigrate into Japan. He thought that war was a good solution to the problem because it unified a population even if it was brutal and precipitated bloodshed, and also buying time would only show that Japan was weaker. This occurred in the mid-19th Century and was pretty much a direct response to Commodore Perry’s intrusion into Edo rather Nagasaki, on President Fillmore’s orders. However, the Kaikoku faction ended up winning the debates and slowly began to open up the borders of Japan in order to appease the demands of the Americans and the Europeans. This
culminated in the Harris Treaty of 1858, which gave the U.S. extraterritorial rights in Japan and opened up four extra ports for the U.S.5) “The Superintendent, in order to save the lives of his imprisoned fellow Countrymen, gave at last the orders required of him, and the parties to whom these orders were addressed, although by no means bound to obey them, and although a great part of the property demanded, did not belong to them, but was only held by them in trust for others, yet complied with these orders,

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