CLEP Psychology Notes

Ten neurotic needs karen horney describes causes of

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Ten Neurotic Needs – Karen Horney Describes causes of anxiety and depression Psycholinguistics – psychologists trained in psychology and linguistics Knowledge and ability people use language Conflict – source of stress in which some goals can only be satisfied at the expense of others Requires individual to identify problem and determine strategy for resolution Anxiety - Tension or perceived threat to well-being General feeling of dread and apprehension Can be used to describe a broad range of discomfort, all people feel at one time Defense Mechanisms – techniques beyond our conscious control to protest against feelings of stress Used in a variety of situations to keep us from experiencing pain and stress Repression – all memory of an event or experience is blocked from conscious awareness Regression – to return to earlier, childish levels of previously productive behavior as an escape from stress. Example: a child may start wetting the bed after a change at home
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Denial – basic defense mechanism against stress A person refuses to acknowledge the realities of a stressful situation Projection – the act of seeing in others those characteristics that cause stress for an individual Allows us to project undesirable behaviors onto others. - Example: getting up late, getting caught in traffic, show up late for work, blame the traffic for your lateness. Emotional Intelligence – ability to recognize and manage emotions Empathy – recognizing emotions of others, characteristics of emotional intelligence Fluid Intelligence – ability to relate to speed, adaptation, flexibility, and abstract reasoning, skills that show the greatest decline with age Crystallized Intelligence – acquired knowledge, accumulated experience and general information Can increase over one’s lifetime Mentally Gifted – outstanding aptitude in one or more areas of aptitude testing, generally high performers on most tests Mentally Retardation – IQ level below 70, associated with impairment in adaptive functioning Z-Score – the number of deviations a test score lies above or below the mean (average) Often used in longitudinal analysis Down’s syndrome – Caused by an extra chromosome (47 th ) condition of many symptoms including mental retardation, stunted growth, mongoloid-like features Gender identity - self-awareness of one’s own maleness or femaleness Gender Roles – attitudes and expectations about how a person acts, thinks, and feels on the basis of being male and female Androgynous – a person who possesses masculine and feminine traits Solomon Acsh- Tested conformity the extent to which social groups exert pressure on our perceptions, emotions and behaviors Sublimation – adaptive defense mechanism that permits unconscious desires to be translated into socially accepted activities Cross –Sectional Study – subjects born at the same time but tested at different times Language – Large collection of arbitrary symbols that have significance in language, follow rules of combination
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Ten Neurotic Needs Karen Horney Describes causes of anxiety...

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