We have been adapted by evolution to see what we need

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We have been adapted by evolution to see what we need to survive An affordance is something object has independently of us / a potential relationship that exists between the object and the user Ex: color or pain Ex: a cup affords being held by its handle Ex: a chair doesn’t have the same affordance for an elephant as it does for a human (sitting would be the affordance) Gibson defines it as actionable properties between the world and an actor, should make properties more visible so that people can act upon them Enactive Perception Three Ideas: Affordances: perception is active and based on possibilities of interaction Prediction: constantly predict possibilities of environment Action: perceiving is a form of acting, need to continuously move eyes for sight J.J Gibson was an American psychologist who worked on visual perception developing the theories of direct perception and ecological optics, coined the term “affordance” Inverse Projection Problem: multiple objects can create same object on retina But perception isn’t a stationary experience, so it should be studied as it occurs in the natural environment Passive creatures will not be able to acquire right meanings of world Example: Self-moving kitten developed normal visual perception while the other kitten didn’t develop depth perception (Held and Hein 1963). We learn through our own active actions Goals are important for what creature sees and learns to see The world we see/perceive is partly created by us through our actions and interests and because of the things we care about or things we need to see for success World we experience is a tiny fraction of total possible perception due to attention blindness and change blindness Attention blindness: by paying attention to one thing we fail to notice other things Ex: card trick Change blindness: when attending to major change ignore others Ex: color-changing rotating shapes Use a lot of prediction in seeing the world i.e. add to what we see -> experience more of the world than there often is. Example: Warhol’s wall of Marilyns Enactive Landscape the structure that an agent co-creates with the world when he or she acts in a goal-oriented manner. Tools change the landscape we live in More skilled familiar, larger the landscape because skills combined with instruments constitute a bigger world of possibilities Example: DaVinci enabled doctor’s enactive landscape by allowing him to act and perceive by its robot hands, camera eyes, etc. `
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Lecture 8 Part 1: Gesture Remember that gesture can be a part of thinking Gesture changes thought by grounding it in action (Beilock and Goldin-Meadow) Gesture reflect what is on our mind Also conveys extra information Tower of Hanoi Some disks required 2 hands to lift This affected what gestures were used Gesturing changed participants’ mental representation
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