3. Overt behaviour, eg. Facial expression, utterance, cry, laugh. Something we are able to actually observe. Every basic emotion is accompanied by these three things regardless of the age of the child Babies 6 months or younger, experience emotion in a broadly positive or broadly negative way. Not too much differentiation between emotions. At 6 months, emotions will rapid differentiate and we will see a whole range of basic emotion. Eg- joy, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust, fear, interest When considering facial expressions, one that is evident in babies is the smile, however before 2-3 months, smile is a reflexive response to bodily states- not indicative of joy or happiness Social smile emerges around 2 months old, and this is when infants smile in response to others. Might also coo while engaging in social smile, and might also move arms and legs with excitement. Seen as an adaptive trait because it attracts the caregiver to the baby, and supports affiliation between baby and caregiver 4-6 months, babies can also distinguish between others happy, sad, and neutral faces. Stranger wariness: feeling distress in the presence of an unfamiliar adult, which does not emerge until about 7 months, and usually not until the baby is actually crawling. Indicative of the behaviour being adaptive. If baby can crawl means they can move away from caregiver, and adaptive to feel distress in presence of stranger when away from caregiver. Depends on two variables= the novelty of the environment (more distressed in unfamiliar environment), and if stranger is encroaching on physical space. If able to properly warm up to stranger, they will be less distressed.
Increases from 7 months and goes away around 2 years. Social referencing: Infants will be able to attend to caregiver cues when they are in an unfamiliar/ambiguous environment to gauge caregivers reaction and act accordingly. To test this- 1. around 12 months, if mom presents baby with unfamiliar toy and she's expressing pleasure when presenting this toy, then baby is much more likely to play with this toy then if she presents the toy with a disgusted face. Usually this is dont with unfamiliar toys or objects. 2. Third party social referencing, mom might present baby with both toys in a neutral manner, and then if a third party exhibits disgust over one of the toys, then the baby is less likely to play with the toy that the third party expressed disgust about. THIS does not occur until 18 months. Language Acquisition How language works in the first year of life (today) Language is a system that relates sounds or gestures to meaning. Important to consider that languages are not only spoken but can be signed as well. The smallest component of language is called a phoneme- a sound. Different sounds can be joined to create different words. Can include consonant/vowel sounds One month old babies can distinguish between phonemes Test- special pacifier which allows to measure the rate that they are sucking, and babies are
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- Fall '13
- motorcortex, babblers