attention every day goes through three basic memory operations- encoding storage, andretrievali.c.attention is important for forming memories. the more we attend to things the greater the chance we will commit to memoryd.encoding (and attention)- information get into memoryi.encoding allows info from outside world to be sensed in form of chemical and physical stimuli and transformed into format that can be perceived, stored, and remembered. info can be combined and encode in multiple ways and then laid down in form of memory traceii.requires attention, in which memorable event causes neurons to fire more frequently, making experience more intense and increasing likelihood that event is thoroughly encoded as a memoryiii.organizing and transformation of sensory info so brain can processiv.learners must encode info to store it- only if successful do we have chance of retrieving information from storagev.three main ways info can be encoded1.visual (picture)2.acoustic (sound)3.semantic (meaning)vi.consolidation is process of stabilizing memory trace after initial acquisition- often considered part of process of storage1.process of making new memories permanent- can involve rehearsal,meaningful association and elaboration
2.consolidation is an ongoing process of reclassification resulting fromcontinuous changes in our neural pathways, and parallel processing of info in our brainse.storage- information maintained in memoryi.refers to maintenance of info so can be retrieved. can involve “editing” of memory trace into a more stable, more permanent record of encoded info. maintaining a good memory trace may require some occasional re-activationii.involves maintaining info available in memoryiii.whenever people have access to info they no longer sense, memory is involved 1.the more info is repeated or used, more likely to be retained in long-term memoryiv.memory must be actively reconstructed from elements that have been scattered throughout various areas of brain by processes of encoding and consolidation f.retrieval- information pulled back out of memory/ rememberingi.info that has been stored needs to be located, selected, and reactivated. mucheasier to retrieve memories that were deeply encoded and consolidatedii.locating, selecting, and activating stored memory representation1.re-enactment of processes/neural events occurring at encodingiii.during retrieval, brain “replays” pattern of neural activity that was originally generated in response to an event, echoing brain’s experience of actual eventIII.Measures of memorya.quantified by ability to recall each of individual “story units” between the / marks. This way, numeric score can be rendered, and this numeric score can be compared to that obtained b.3 scored are generated from this measure: immediate recall, delayed recall, and (delayed) recognitioni.patients asked to recall story immediately and following a 25- minute delay. Then, they are asked a series of yes.no questions about storyc.