HRM experiences, wedemonstrated the importance of introducing within-organization variances in understanding the processfor HRM to impact organizational outcomes. In addi-tion, it is important to note that our focus on the ho-mogeneity of employees’HRM experiences divergesfrom Bowen and Ostroff’s (2004) focus on HRM sys-tem strength. Specifically,“HRM system strength”refers to the extent to which an HRM system sendsunambiguous messages about the responses and be-haviors that are expected, rewarded, and valued bythe organization (Ostroff & Bowen, 2016). In otherwords, it is based on whether employees share anunderstanding about organizations’desired work be-haviors. By contrast, our study focuses on the vari-ability of employees’HRM experiences, rather thanFIGURE 2The Interaction between Employee-Experienced HIWS and the Homogeneity of HIWSExperiences on Innovation50%45%40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0%LowHighProbability (Innovation = 2) at LowHomogeneity of HIWS Experiences (M – 1SD)Probability (Innovation = 1) at LowHomogeneity of HIWS Experiences (M– 1SD)Probability (Innovation = 2) at HighHomogeneity of HIWS Experiences (M+ 1SD)Probability (Innovation = 1) at HighHomogeneity of HIWS Experiences (M + 1SD)Employee-Experienced HIWSProbability of Innovation20182013Li, Wang, van Jaarsveld, Lee, and Ma
their shared understanding of desired work behaviorssignaled by the HRM system.For the external mechanism, our finding demon-strated that high strategic importance of innova-tion amplified the positive relation between anemployee-experienced HIWS and innovation. Priorstudies on the strategic contingency of HRM havemainly focused on the alignment of HRM systemswith competitive strategies (e.g., differentiation vs.cost leadership; Huselid, 1995). As summarized byJackson, Schuler, and Jiang (2014), empirical find-ings on the moderating roles of competitive strate-gies have been inconsistent, which might reflect thefact that firms achieve their strategy through variousways (e.g., firms can pursue a differentiation strategyby focusing on innovation or quality management)and the measures of business strategies often ignoredifferent strategic priorities. Our study distinguishesfrom previous research in that we push beyondcompetitive strategies to directly capture organiza-tions’strategic need and priority regarding innova-tion. By directly examining the strategic importanceof innovation, our study contributes to the strategiccontingency of HRM.For the temporal mechanism, we introduced theconcept of churn to the HRM literature to investigatehow human resource flow shaped the relation be-tween HIWSs and innovation. It is important to notethat the churn in human resources is an emergentconstruct that describes the total quantitative humanresource flow, regardless of the qualitative changesassociatedwithemployeedeparturesandre-placements (Nyberg & Ployhart, 2013). Our findingdemonstrated that the churn in human resourcesamplifiedthepositiveeffectofanemployee-experienced HIWS on innovation by improving theadaptability associated with collective interactions.